Which of the following is NOT a formal qualification for the presidency?
must have extensive prior political experience
the speech given by an important party member at the first session of the national convention
The order of succession to the presidency after the Vice President is determined by the
Presidential Succession Act.
One of the major flaws in the electoral college system is that
the winner of the popular vote is not guaranteed the presidency.
Most States had to change their primary laws to account for the Democrats' ____ rule
The national convention is held to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT
select the party's delegates
According to the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, which of these officers follows the Vice President in the line of presidential succession?
Speaker of the House
The most widely supported plan for reform of the electoral college is the
direct popular election plan.
Which of the following is a way that presidential disability is determined?
The Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet inform Congress in writing
Most presidential caucuses differ from Statewide presidential primaries in all of the following ways EXCEPT the
main purpose for which the delegates are chosen.
During the nomination process, political battles are most likely to occur in
presidential primaries in the party out of power
All of the following are characteristics that usually determine who is nominated for President EXCEPT
The ____ is the group of people chosen from each State and the District of Columbia to formally select the President and Vice President
balance the ticket
Presidential candidates often choose a running mate who can ____ by virtue of certain characteristics
Under the ____ system, a candidate who wins the preference vote in a primary automatically wins the support of all the delegates chosen in the primary
If an incumbent President is seeking another term in office, who will his party likely nominate?
In case the President is disabled, the way the Vice President becomes President is determined by the
the President may decide to resume duties after an illness by informing Congress that no inability exists, but that decision can be challenged by
the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet
Which of the following statements is NOT an argument against the electoral college system?
The results depend upon how State congressional districts are drawn.
Under the power of ____, the President can accept another country as equal in the family of nations
Without the consent of the Senate, the President can make a(n) ____ with heads of foreign states
A directive, rule, or regulation made by the President that has the effect of law is called a(n) ____.
When President Andrew Johnson fired his secretary of war in 1867, he was following
the unwritten rule that the President may remove whomever he appoints
Since a full pardon was not granted, the criminal asked for a(n) ____ to lessen her sentence.
A(n) ____ is a pact between the President and a foreign state that does not require Senate approval.
Which of the following gives the President the power to issue executive orders?
congressional acts and the Constitution
The power of the presidency has been cause for debate MAINLY because
the Constitution provided a loose definition of executive power
Which of the following statements about the President's power of removal is TRUE?
As a general rule, the President may remove any officeholders he or she has appointed.
The debate over the powers of the presidency is essentially a debate
between supporters of a strong presidency and supporters of a weak presidency.
Which of the following is a typical sequence of events in the appointment process?
nomination, Senate committee hearings, Senate debate, rejection
Which of the following has NOT worked to strengthen the powers of the presidency?
the constitutional system of checks and balances
Presidents who have been considered stronger and more effective leaders have viewed the presidency as
what Theodore Roosevelt called a "stewardship."
Upon receipt of a bill, the President can take all of the following actions EXCEPT
call on a special session of congressional committees to revise the bill
The President's power to execute the law covers
all federal laws, whether or not the President agrees with them
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the growth of executive power?
demands for limits on Federal Government roles
The President has the power to make executive agreements
without any congressional action or approval.
The difference between a treaty and an executive agreement is that
the President needs Senate approval for a treaty but not for an executive agreement.
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the Federal Government's classification as a bureaucracy?
The government has three branches with checks and balances.
Which of the following are functions of employees working in the White House Office?
advise the President on foreign, domestic, and defense matters
The Federal Government is considered a bureaucracy primarily because it
is a complex system of organization based on certain principles
The civil service system was finally established because of
President Garfield's assassination by an angry office seeker
Which one of the following is an example of an independent agency?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The first reform that successfully laid the foundation for the present civil service system was
the Pendleton Act
The members of the President's Cabinet, after being appointed by the President, are then subject to
The spoils system is
the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to friends and supporters
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles upon which all bureaucracies are organized?
Which of the following is NOT a reason that independent agencies exist outside of Cabinet departments?
The Constitution specifically provided for the independent existence of some agencies
President Jackson supported the spoils system with all of the following arguments EXCEPT
only privileged people should be selected to fulfill public office.
Government corporations are unlike private corporations in all the following aspects EXCEPT
the titles of those who run them.
Which of the following are among the criteria for a President when choosing a Cabinet member?
all of the above
Congress established the first ____ when the Bank of the United States was chartered
The Environmental Protection Agency and the Peace Corps are both examples of ____.
The MAIN purpose of the National Security Council is to
advise the President on all domestic, foreign, and military aspects of the nation's security
Which of the following was one of the original executive departments set up by Congress in 1789?
Department of Treasury
Which one of the following agencies is a part of the Executive Office of the President?
Office of Management and Budget
Historically, the role of the Cabinet in the President's decision making may be described as
dependent on a President's use of it.
Each ____ or person working for the organization, has certain defined duties and responsibilities
Some independent agencies are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in that they
have certain powers, given to them by Congress, to make laws and rule on conflicts.
The MAIN goal of the civil service today is to
recruit and keep the best available people in the federal work force
The administrative units in the government
are inconsistently called agencies, administrations, commissions, and so forth
Which one of the following groups of advisors is NOT part of the Executive Office of the President?
General Service Administration, NASA, EPA
Which of the following best summarizes the MAIN purpose of the Executive Office of the President?
helping the President carry out his or her duties as chief executive
Over time, the number of executive departments grew in large part because
the workload of the Federal Government expanded as the country grew
President William Howard Taft thought the Cabinet's role should be
entirely dependent upon the will of the President and his view of the Cabinet.
Which statement about staff and line agencies is TRUE?
Line agencies perform tasks and administer programs, while staff agencies furnish advice and give assistance
One reason for the importance of the federal budget is that it
determines which public programs will have money to operate
The process of preparing the federal budget begins with
estimates from all agencies detailing yearly spending projections.
To combat a crisis situation in the past, Congress was allowed to
borrow money for the Federal Government
Which of the following is NOT a source of nontax money in the United States?
revenues collected as custom duties
In recent decades, the Federal Government borrowed money mostly to
operate the government and pay previous years' debt.
A(n) ____ is a tax levied against the manufacture, sale, or consumption of goods. , continuing resolution
Congress passed a(n) ____ for the Department of Energy to operate until annual appropriations were approved.
The Federal Government is able to borrow money at lower interest rates than private borrowers because
its securities are considered the safest possible investment
In developing the budget, the President's budget plan is referred to the
Budget Committee in each house of Congress for study
The power to borrow money, historically, was seen as a way for the United States to
meet the costs of both long and short term crisis situations
Two of the largest categories of federal spending are
Social Security and interest on the public debt
Sometimes the Federal Government's power to levy taxes for nonrevenue purposes is denied by the Supreme Court because
the tax provisions may interfere with a protected constitutional right
Which of the following limits on the Federal Government's power to tax is implied but not stated in the Constitution?
States shall not be taxed for their governmental activities
tax generally withheld from paychecks, with the funds going to support major social welfare programs
Today, more than one in every five dollars spent by the Federal Government pays for
interest on the national debt
is a charge levied for borrowing money, generally earning a percentage of the amount borrowed.
A tax that is set at a flat rate, without regard for income or the ability to pay, is known as a(n) ____.
ruling that allows a government agency to function until its annual appropriations are approved
benefit that federal law says must be paid to those who meet the eligibility requirements
Although only Congress can appropriate the money that the Federal Government uses to operate, it is the ____ who initiate(s) the spending process
A person with a low income from an importing business, who receives large gifts of money from friends and has no wealthy relatives, would prefer
a progressive income tax, low custom duties, high estate taxes, and low gift taxes.
The Federal Government can
tax an activity that Congress believes is harmful or dangerous to the public
Which of the following best describes the role of the secretary of state?
the President's chief aide and advisor on matters of foreign affairs
For the first part of the country's history, American foreign policy could be described most accurately as
a desire for noninvolvement
The secretary of defense is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
selecting the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Since 1965 the immigration policy of the United States, as enforced by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, has emphasized
refugee status and family reunification.
The contrasting foreign policies of the United States that followed World War I and World War II can best be summarized as a shift from
isolationism to internationalism
Since the end of the cold war, which region of the world has shaped American foreign policy the MOST?
The position of the United States in the Middle East can best be described as that of
supporter of both Israel and most Arab countries
The principle of ____ works to keep international peace and order by uniting most world nations
Ambassadors are regularly granted ____, which means that they are not subject to the laws of the state in which they serve
In the early part of United States history, the American people were chiefly interested in ____, or what was happening at home
The United States offers foreign aid MOSTLY to
support struggling democracies and countries that are critical to foreign policy objectives
What do the Customs Service, Public Health Service, and Coast Guard have in common?
an involvement with the foreign and defense policies of the United States
What do the CIA, Customs Service, and the Coast Guard have in common?
They are all have a role in foreign relations
The United States does not have a major strategic military alliance in the Middle East mainly because
the United States wants to maintain friendly relations with both Arabs and Israelis
Which historic world event finally ended the United States' commitment to a policy of isolationism?
World War II
Which does NOT accurately describe the secretary of defense?
must have served active military duty within 10 years of appointment
Since the end of the cold war, American foreign policy has recognized that
there are several new threats to world security
The United States Public Health Service has a role in foreign affairs by
working with the United Nations to prevent disease and meet other health related problems throughout the world
The policy of giving economic and military assistance to other countries is known as ____.
The ____ was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense and often hostile.
Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over all of the following types of cases EXCEPT cases involving
citizens of different States
Which of the following federal courts exercises both original and appellate jurisdiction?
the Supreme Court
Which one of the following duties is NOT performed by a United States magistrate?
recording court proceedings
All of the following statements about the Court of Federal Claims are true EXCEPT:
Decisions from the Court of Federal Claims cannot be appealed
Which of the following are all special courts?
Court of Federal Claims, U.S. Tax Court, Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
Which statement about differences between constitutional courts and special courts is TRUE?
Special courts hear a much narrower range of cases.
Which of the following could be the subject of a criminal case tried in federal court?
The purposes of the 12 federal courts of appeals include all of the following EXCEPT
to hear original cases that have bypassed lower courts.
Most importantly, the Supreme Court is called the High Court because it is the
last court in which federal questions can be decided.
The MOST accurate reason that the Court of International Trade is classified as a constitutional court rather than a special court is that
it exercises the broad "judicial power of the United States."
Legal cases in the District of Columbia and the territories that belong to the United States are settled in:
a separate system of courts for each territory and each district like those at the State and federal levels.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes once said that the Constitution "means what the judges say it means." He was defining the Supreme Court's
power of judicial review
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe federal district courts?
Like courts of appeals, they have the right to listen to appeals
The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit differs from the other 12 federal courts of appeals because it
hears cases from across the country
The MOST IMPORTANT reason why the United States needed a national court system was that
each State was interpreting laws for itself.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about a writ of certiorari?
The Supreme Court grants cert in a limited numbers of instances.
Which federal court has original jurisdiction over MOST cases heard in federal court?
Which of the following statements about the Supreme Court is FALSE?
The Supreme Court only reads briefs; it does not hear oral arguments
Which of the following statements about federal judges is TRUE?
They are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
Due Process Clause
States cannot deny the basic provisions of the Bill of Rights to their citizens because of the ____ of the 14th Amendment
____ give reporters some protection against having to disclose their sources or reveal other confidential information in legal proceedings
Laws against seditious speech have been upheld by the Supreme Court if they
urge people to overthrow the government.
A person may do as he or she chooses in this country
as long as that person does not infringe on the rights of others.
Under the Establishment Clause, the government still has the power to do all of the following EXCEPT
establish an acceptable voluntary prayer for use in public schools.
positive acts of government that seek to make constitutional guarantees a reality for all
guarantee of association
the right to gather with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
The government's rules must be ____, meaning that while the government can regulate assemblies on the basis of time, place, and manner, it cannot regulate assemblies on the basis of what may be expressed.
The right of people to gather together to express their views on public matters is known as the right to ____.
is the advocating of conduct intended to disrupt the lawful acts of the government with violence
Which of the following statements about commercial speech is TRUE?
Commercial speech is protected by the 1st and 14th amendments
The Free Exercise Clause gives people the right to
believe whatever they choose to believe in matters of religion
An argument for government control of assemblies involves the
duty of government to protect the public
The 10 amendments known as the Bill of Rights were originally intended as restrictions against
the new National Government
The Supreme Court has ruled that demonstrations on private property
are not protected by the First Amendment if demonstrators are trespassing
guarantee of association
the right to assemble and petition with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
Which of the following statements about civil rights is NOT true?
Rights are extended only to citizens
Individual rights were included in the Constitution because
the people demanded a listing of rights.
Government has the right to make reasonable rules regulating assemblies
to protect against the inciting of violence or the endangerment of life
In deciding cases involving laws against sedition, the Supreme Court has
developed the "clear and present danger" rule
Which of the following is NOT one of the public places in which people have a constitutional right to hand out political literature?
Which of the following statements about prior restraint is TRUE?
The Supreme Court has only rarely upheld prior restraints
The main reason that there is no exact definition of the due process guarantees is that the
The Supreme Court only defines the guarantees on a case-by-case basis.
The most important difference between procedural and substantive due process is that
procedural due process deals with governmental methods and how they are used, whereas substantive due process deals with the fairness of laws.
The Supreme Court cases Jones v. Mayer (1968) and Runyon v. McCrary (1976) have
strengthened the 13th Amendment by upholding the right of Congress to outlaw discrimination against minorities
The right to privacy inherent in the concept of due process has been applied with the most controversy recently in cases involving
In Furman v. Georgia, 1972, the Court ruled that
existing death penalty laws were unconstitutional because they gave too much discretion to judges and juries.
Which of the following was declared by the Supreme Court to be "cruel and unusual punishment"?
denying inmates needed medical treatment
The writ of habeas corpus is intended to prevent
the accused from being unjustly arrested and imprisoned without cause
Because the Supreme Court has never found the 2nd Amendment to be within the meaning of the 14th Amendment's Due Process clause,
States can limit the right to keep and bear arms.
The States' police power is defined as the right to
punish those who commit crimes against the citizenry
The main reason the Constitution dealt specifically with the crime of treason was that
the Framers knew the charge of treason can be used for political reasons.
When arresting a person, police must
have probable cause to believe the person is involved in criminal activity
The inclusion of two due process clauses in the Constitution reflects the fact that
the Bill of Rights is for the National Government, and the 14th Amendment is for the States and their local governments
A(n) ____, requires the police to bring a prisoner before the court and explain why he or she should not be released.
writ of habeas corpus
The 6th Amendment's guarantee of a speedy and public trial is aimed at
trying those accused of crimes without undue delay and avoiding secret trials
Current polls indicate that two of every three Americans support ____ for those convicted of murder
The ____ says that evidence gained as a result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whom it was seized
The prohibition of ____ prevents a person from being tried twice for the same crime.
bill of attainder
Neither Congress nor the States can pass a(n) ____ that inflicts punishment without a court trial
Prosecutors in States often use a(n) ____ to show that there is enough evidence to bring a person to trial.
Which of the following statements about the 4th Amendment is TRUE?
It forbids unreasonable searches and seizures
To have a fair trial, a person is guaranteed all of the following EXCEPT
media coverage if demanded.
is the process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
More than a third of the nation's Native Americans live on the ____ set aside for them by the government
The Federal Government's chief response to the effects of past discriminatory practices based on race, color, and sex is the policy of ____.
An amnesty program was established by the Immigration and Reform Act of 1986 to address which of the following problems?
Undocumented aliens had troubled and divided many groups.
Laws that treat men and women differently
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria
The Constitution's statement regarding the equality of all persons can be found in both
the 14th Amendment and the Due Process Clause.
One test that the Supreme Court uses to determine the validity of laws that discriminate between groups of people is the
rational basis test.
The continuing theme of immigration policy in the United States has been to
adapt regulations to fit changing conditions at a particular time.
Alan Bakke charged the University of California with ____ after he was denied admission to their medical
The response of the Supreme Court to affirmative action programs today can BEST be described as
conservative in rendering decisions.
Which part of the Constitution declares that a person can become an American citizen either by birth or naturalization?
A person can become a citizen of the United States by all of the following means EXCEPT
illegally crossing the Mexican border into Texas
One reason that women earn 80 cents for every dollar earned by men is that
on average, only low paying occupations were open to women
In regard to the issue of equality, the Constitution states that
no person can be denied equal protection of the laws
Congress did not pass civil rights legislation from the 1870s to the late 1950s MAINLY because
those in power were unaware, unconcerned, or strongly opposed
The first major Supreme Court case that challenged affirmative action was
University of California v. Bakke.
With ____, the Federal Government hopes to overcome effects of past discrimination
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?
It quickly brought about integration of schools in this country
What is the role of the emperor in Japanese government today?
He serves as the symbol of the people's unity
Like the Constitution of the United States, Mexico's fundamental law establishes a national government
with three separate, independent branches
The main difference between the constitutions of China and the United States is that
the Chinese constitution reflects current government policy, not fundamental law
The national government of China is composed of two main bodies, the
National People's Congress and the State Council
The first constitutional framework for an independent Mexico was established under the leadership of
General Santa Anna in 1824
In Mexico's local government system, each state has all of the following EXCEPT
a separate president
The Mexican constitution of 1917
established a system in which the government played a more active role in promoting the quality of Mexican life
Where it exists in industrialized democracies today, the tradition of hereditary rule, or ____, is largely ceremonial.
In Japan's National Diet, politicians seek to reach ____, or broad agreements, on issues, placing great emphasis on avoiding confrontation.
In 1938, President Cardenas of Mexico oversaw the ____ of all United States oil companies in his country, acquiring them for public use.
Under the process of devolution, the British Parliament has reserved for itself exclusive powers in the areas of
defense, foreign policy, and macroeconomic policy
Which of the following statements best describes the regional and local government structure present in Mexico today?
Mexico is divided into 31 states and I Federal District, with each state providing for a governor, unicameral legislature and state courts
In England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, the final court of appeals in all cases is
the House of Lords
Gorbachev's plan for the restructuring of political and economic life in the Soviet Union
a function of the British Parliament in which appointed opposition party members watch over present cabinet members in case of a shift in majority leadership
Japan is a unitary state, so its individual prefectures have
much less power than the individual States in the United States.
Unlike the Constitution of the United States, China's constitution is intended to
reflect current government policies
In China's political structure, the central government's control over local subdivisions is best described as
In Japan, the process by which the prime minister can excuse the House of Representatives and trigger a general election in which voters fill all 500 seats is called
The collapse of the Soviet communist government was mainly due to
its own inability to accommodate the rising demand for widespread democratic reform.
Which of the following best describes the written portion of the British constitution?
It consists of historic charters, acts of Parliament and innumerable court decisions
Soviet dictator Josef Stalin resorted to ____ in an attempt to rid his country of rivals and dissent
was the policy of openness under which the Soviet government increased toleration of dissent and freedom of expression.
North American Free Trade Agreement
The ____ removed trade restrictions among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which increased cross-border trade
In Great Britain, the process of ____ allowed some political authority to be passed from the central government to regional governments.
Which political party has dominated Japanese politics since the end of World War II?
Liberal Democratic Party
Because of term limits and short session work, the General Congress in Mexico has
a far less significant governing role that the United States Congress
Which of the following exerts the most influence over the policies and actions of Japan's House of Representatives?
the Liberal Democratic Party
The structure of the Chinese Communist Party is similar to that of
the former Soviet Union's Communist Party
Which of the following best describes the role of the English monarchy today?
to serve as a figurehead of state
elected councils that made up the government of the Soviet Union at the factory, farm, city, regional and national levels
a step the prime minister of Japan may take leading to the immediate election of a new House of Representatives
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of socialism in a developing country?
Socialism requires the implementation of a free enterprise system
The type of business organization that is owned by two or more individuals sharing the collective resources of those individuals is known as a
Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto as
a call to all oppressed workers to free themselves from "capitalistic enslavement."
The type of business organization whose income is subject to two taxes, one on profits and one on dividends, is a
A distinctive feature of capitalism is that
most productive property is owned and operated by private individuals or companies
The ideas of socialism developed in large part as a
reaction to poverty and hardships caused by the Industrial Revolution.
Which of the following include the basic factors of production?
land, labor, management, and capital
A single business is a ____ if it has achieved exclusive control over a product or service.
Marx considered factory workers and other members of the ____ to be modern-day versions of serfs
Stalin achieved the ____ of agriculture by combining millions of small, private farms into huge government-controlled farms.
laws of supply and demand
According to the ____, the price of an item sold in a competitive market will go up as it becomes more popular.
If the expenses of a business are more than the income earned, the business has experienced a(n)
Public ownership of productive property combined with large-scale centralized planning is a representative trait of which economic system?
One concern that socialists have about capitalism is that
it creates economic inequality within a society
The amount of money earned after subtracting the costs associated with that earning is known as
Private individuals and companies decide what products to manufacture and what prices to charge for goods and services in a
Stalin introduced centralized planning run by a large, governmental agency known as the ____.
Because private enterprise and government coexist together in American economic life, the economic system is called a
Which of the following was Gorbachev's program of perestroika designed to address?
the decline of economic growth and productivity throughout the Soviet Union
Which of the following actions or policies was based primarily on Marx's theory of socialism?
Communist party control of all social, political, and economic institutions
According to communist theory, the value of a commodity is determined by the
amount of labor put into it.
law that relates to human conduct, disputes between private parties, and disputes between private parties and government not covered by criminal law
Justice of the Peace
the lowest level of the State judicial system, presiding over what are commonly called justice courts
Many governors use the ____ to reject only those parts of a bill that they find unacceptable.
When following ____, judges interpret and apply laws in a way that is consistent with earlier court decisions.
A governor may release a person from the legal consequences of a crime by invoking his power to ____.
In some States, a serious criminal case may be heard without a petit jury if the
accused waives the right to a trial by jury.
Which State was the first in which popular approval played a direct role in the adoption and ratification of a State constitution?
The ____ is the usual device by which new State constitutions are written and older constitutions revised.
The ____ is a petition procedure by which voters may remove an elected official from office before the completion of his or her regular term.
A legislative matter referred to a States' voters for approval or rejection is done so through a process of ____.
Public wrongs such as drug dealing, auto theft, and arson are violations of ____ and are prosecuted by the State
The ____ is a petition procedure by which voters may remove an elected official from office before the completion of his or her regular term
Today, the most widely used method for selecting judges to sit in State and local courts is
Which of the following could be among the informal requirements for State legislators?
was the first State in which popular electorate participation played a large part in the constitution-making process
Which of the following is NOT true of each State's constitution?
Each State constitution takes priority over all provisions of federal law.
The major function of ____ is to determine whether the evidence against a person charged with a crime is sufficient to justify a trial.
a grand jury
Which of the following is responsible for the formal interpretation of a State's constitutional and statutory law?
the attorney general
The popular election of judges is supported mainly on the grounds that
it makes those who apply the law directly accountable to the people
The form of law enacted both by the people, through referendum or initiative, and by legislative bodies is called
According to most State constitutions, if a governor resigns or leaves office midterm the ____ serves the remainder of his term
All of the following include examples of federal limitations placed on State and local taxing powers EXCEPT
the taxing of cigarettes and alcohol
Which of the following include examples of the ways in which metropolitan areas attempt to meet fiscal challenges?
the annexation of outlying areas
All of the following include examples of the common functions of counties EXCEPT the
dividing of land into residential, commercial, and industrial zones.
At the State and local level, the first step in the typical budget process is that
each agency prepares estimates of its needs and expenditures for the upcoming year.
an independent unit created to perform one or more government functions at the local level
the division of cities or towns into areas legally reserved for residential, commercial, or industrial use
All of the following factors contributed to the growth of the nation's suburbs after World War II EXCEPT
the need for less privacy
States with a high level of ____ reflect the special challenges of governing heavily populated areas, such as the expense of managing roads and traffic
A selective ____ applies only to specific products like alcohol and cigarettes, and is paid by the buyer
In its ____, the State sets out its fiscal priorities and decides which agencies receive funds and how much
The ____ is the city's basic laws and commonly names the city, describes its boundaries, and declares it to be a municipal corporation
Which statement is true about all counties in the United States?
They can only be created by the State.
Which of the following services are provided by both State AND local government?
education and public safety
The dramatic shift from a rural to an urban population was first made possible on a large scale by the
The planning method most cities rely on to classify and control land use within their boundaries is called
All of the following are among the major elements of the structure of county government EXCEPT
an independent executive board.
Most States have some form of ____, which are levied on the earnings of individuals and corporations.
The ____ is comprised of five popularly elected officials, who form the city council, pass ordinances, and control local government
In many Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States, counties are divided into subdivisions called ____.
The main reason that States hold many important powers is that the
Framers distrusted a strong central government.
City zoning is most often opposed on the grounds that it
denies people the right to use their property as they choose
The United States Constitution reserves to the States all powers not delegated to Congress or denied to the States, meaning that the States
hold a great number of powers.