Which of the following is NOT a formal qualification for the presidency?
must have extensive prior political experience
the name of the group that makes the formal selection of the President
the mass of people who actually cast votes in an election
the speech given by an important party member at the first session of the national convention
The order of succession to the presidency after the Vice President is determined by the
Presidential Succession Act.
One of the major flaws in the electoral college system is that
the winner of the popular vote is not guaranteed the presidency.
The first session of the national convention is generally devoted to
Most States had to change their primary laws to account for the Democrats' ____ rule
must cast their State's formal votes for President
chief of state
As ____, the President is the political leader of the nation.
The basic statement of the party's policies and principles is known as its ____.
According to the Constitution, the President must
be at least 35 years of age.
A presidential primary can be
both of the above.
the plan by which a presidential vacancy is filled
the formal statement of a political party's basic principles
commander in chief
____ the President's role as the head of the armed forces
The national convention is held to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT
select the party's delegates
According to the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, which of these officers follows the Vice President in the line of presidential succession?
Speaker of the House
As of January 20, 2001, the President receives a yearly salary of
A President can serve no more than ____ years in office
The most widely supported plan for reform of the electoral college is the
direct popular election plan.
Which of the following is a way that presidential disability is determined?
The Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet inform Congress in writing
Most presidential caucuses differ from Statewide presidential primaries in all of the following ways EXCEPT the
main purpose for which the delegates are chosen.
During the nomination process, political battles are most likely to occur in
presidential primaries in the party out of power
All of the following are characteristics that usually determine who is nominated for President EXCEPT
The ____ is the group of people chosen from each State and the District of Columbia to formally select the President and Vice President
balance the ticket
Presidential candidates often choose a running mate who can ____ by virtue of certain characteristics
The President is the nation's ____, heading a large government organization
Under the ____ system, a candidate who wins the preference vote in a primary automatically wins the support of all the delegates chosen in the primary
As ____, the President holds broad power in domestic and foreign affairs
The Framers of the Constitution called for the President to be elected by
a body of electors.
If an incumbent President is seeking another term in office, who will his party likely nominate?
The electoral system broke down in the election of 1800 because of the
rise of political parties
The least number of presidential electors a State can have is
In case the President is disabled, the way the Vice President becomes President is determined by the
the President may decide to resume duties after an illness by informing Congress that no inability exists, but that decision can be challenged by
the Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet
Which of the following statements is NOT an argument against the electoral college system?
The results depend upon how State congressional districts are drawn.
A State's presidential electors are chosen by
A formal duty assigned to the Vice President by the Constitution is to
preside over the Senate
The first and most widely publicized caucus today is held in the State of
Under the power of ____, the President can accept another country as equal in the family of nations
Without the consent of the Senate, the President can make a(n) ____ with heads of foreign states
is the granting of a general pardon to a whole group of law violators.
A directive, rule, or regulation made by the President that has the effect of law is called a(n) ____.
When President Andrew Johnson fired his secretary of war in 1867, he was following
the unwritten rule that the President may remove whomever he appoints
In essence, the ordinance power gives the President the right to
The ____ outlines the powers of the presidency.
Since a full pardon was not granted, the criminal asked for a(n) ____ to lessen her sentence.
A ____ postpones the execution of a sentence, but in itself does not change the sentence
A(n) ____ is a pact between the President and a foreign state that does not require Senate approval.
A(n) ____ is an international agreement that requires senate approval
Which of the following gives the President the power to issue executive orders?
congressional acts and the Constitution
The power of the presidency has been cause for debate MAINLY because
the Constitution provided a loose definition of executive power
Which of the following statements about the President's power of removal is TRUE?
As a general rule, the President may remove any officeholders he or she has appointed.
The debate over the powers of the presidency is essentially a debate
between supporters of a strong presidency and supporters of a weak presidency.
Which of the following is a typical sequence of events in the appointment process?
nomination, Senate committee hearings, Senate debate, rejection
The power to issue executive orders is the
Which of the following has NOT worked to strengthen the powers of the presidency?
the constitutional system of checks and balances
The President's military powers
are shared with Congress
The ____ appoints Cabinet members ____
President; with Senate approval
Presidents who have been considered stronger and more effective leaders have viewed the presidency as
what Theodore Roosevelt called a "stewardship."
Treaties can be
all of the above.
Upon receipt of a bill, the President can take all of the following actions EXCEPT
call on a special session of congressional committees to revise the bill
The President's power to execute the law covers
all federal laws, whether or not the President agrees with them
Some Presidents, such as ____, have taken a narrow view of presidential powers.
William Howard Taft
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the growth of executive power?
demands for limits on Federal Government roles
The President exercises legislative power over Congress by
The President has the power to make executive agreements
without any congressional action or approval.
The difference between a treaty and an executive agreement is that
the President needs Senate approval for a treaty but not for an executive agreement.
A President can use armed forces abroad
at his or her own discretion
The President's power to grant pardons
can be used before a person is charged with a crime
The President CANNOT exercise judicial power by
granting pardons in cases of impeachment.
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the Federal Government's classification as a bureaucracy?
The government has three branches with checks and balances.
The phrase "name game" suggests that
titles of government units are not standardized.
Which of the following are functions of employees working in the White House Office?
advise the President on foreign, domestic, and defense matters
The Federal Government is considered a bureaucracy primarily because it
is a complex system of organization based on certain principles
The civil service system was finally established because of
President Garfield's assassination by an angry office seeker
Which one of the following is an example of an independent agency?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The first reform that successfully laid the foundation for the present civil service system was
the Pendleton Act
The members of the President's Cabinet, after being appointed by the President, are then subject to
The spoils system is
the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to friends and supporters
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles upon which all bureaucracies are organized?
Which of the following is NOT a reason that independent agencies exist outside of Cabinet departments?
The Constitution specifically provided for the independent existence of some agencies
President Jackson supported the spoils system with all of the following arguments EXCEPT
only privileged people should be selected to fulfill public office.
Government corporations are unlike private corporations in all the following aspects EXCEPT
the titles of those who run them.
The civil service was created partly to ensure that federal employees
are promoted based on merit.
Which of the following are among the criteria for a President when choosing a Cabinet member?
all of the above
Congress established the first ____ when the Bank of the United States was chartered
The Environmental Protection Agency and the Peace Corps are both examples of ____.
The MAIN purpose of the National Security Council is to
advise the President on all domestic, foreign, and military aspects of the nation's security
Unlike staff agencies, line agencies
are directly responsible for administering programs
Which of the following was one of the original executive departments set up by Congress in 1789?
Department of Treasury
In the executive branch, the title of department is reserved for
agencies of Cabinet rank
Which one of the following agencies is a part of the Executive Office of the President?
Office of Management and Budget
Historically, the role of the Cabinet in the President's decision making may be described as
dependent on a President's use of it.
Executive Office of the President
The "nerve center" of the ____ is the White House Office.
Each ____ or person working for the organization, has certain defined duties and responsibilities
Some independent agencies are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in that they
have certain powers, given to them by Congress, to make laws and rule on conflicts.
The MAIN goal of the civil service today is to
recruit and keep the best available people in the federal work force
The administrative units in the government
are inconsistently called agencies, administrations, commissions, and so forth
Which one of the following groups of advisors is NOT part of the Executive Office of the President?
General Service Administration, NASA, EPA
Which of the following best summarizes the MAIN purpose of the Executive Office of the President?
helping the President carry out his or her duties as chief executive
Over time, the number of executive departments grew in large part because
the workload of the Federal Government expanded as the country grew
President William Howard Taft thought the Cabinet's role should be
entirely dependent upon the will of the President and his view of the Cabinet.
Federal employees are permitted to do which of the following?
hold office in a political party
Which statement about staff and line agencies is TRUE?
Line agencies perform tasks and administer programs, while staff agencies furnish advice and give assistance
One reason for the importance of the federal budget is that it
determines which public programs will have money to operate
A gift tax must be paid if a person
receives gifts valuing more than $10,000 in any one year
The process of preparing the federal budget begins with
estimates from all agencies detailing yearly spending projections.
Both corporate and individual income taxes are set at ____ rates
Canal tolls and fees for passports and patents are categorized as
To combat a crisis situation in the past, Congress was allowed to
borrow money for the Federal Government
Which of the following is NOT a source of nontax money in the United States?
revenues collected as custom duties
The most important aspect of the federal budget is the impact it has on
Public debt today is measured in ____ of dollars
The Federal Government can levy taxes on all of the following groups EXCEPT
In recent decades, the Federal Government borrowed money mostly to
operate the government and pay previous years' debt.
Medicare is a(n) ____ because it must be paid to people who meet the requirements
Social Security benefits are an example of
A(n) ____ is a tax levied against the manufacture, sale, or consumption of goods. , continuing resolution
Congress passed a(n) ____ for the Department of Energy to operate until annual appropriations were approved.
The largest source of federal revenue from taxes comes from
The Federal Government is able to borrow money at lower interest rates than private borrowers because
its securities are considered the safest possible investment
In developing the budget, the President's budget plan is referred to the
Budget Committee in each house of Congress for study
The power to borrow money, historically, was seen as a way for the United States to
meet the costs of both long and short term crisis situations
Two of the largest categories of federal spending are
Social Security and interest on the public debt
Taxes on the production, transportation, sale, or consumption of goods are ____ taxes
Sometimes the Federal Government's power to levy taxes for nonrevenue purposes is denied by the Supreme Court because
the tax provisions may interfere with a protected constitutional right
Which of the following limits on the Federal Government's power to tax is implied but not stated in the Constitution?
States shall not be taxed for their governmental activities
more annual income received, than spent
tax levied on money or property given by one living person to another
tax generally withheld from paychecks, with the funds going to support major social welfare programs
declaration of income, exemptions, and deductions claimed
Today, more than one in every five dollars spent by the Federal Government pays for
interest on the national debt
is a charge levied for borrowing money, generally earning a percentage of the amount borrowed.
A tax that is set at a flat rate, without regard for income or the ability to pay, is known as a(n) ____.
A ____ is a tax laid on goods brought into the United States from abroad
Money from the ____ helps pay for Social Security and Medicare programs
tax imposed on the assets of one who dies
ruling that allows a government agency to function until its annual appropriations are approved
benefit that federal law says must be paid to those who meet the eligibility requirements
tax that has a higher rate for a higher income
Although only Congress can appropriate the money that the Federal Government uses to operate, it is the ____ who initiate(s) the spending process
The Federal Government's practice of spending more than it takes in results in
A person with a low income from an importing business, who receives large gifts of money from friends and has no wealthy relatives, would prefer
a progressive income tax, low custom duties, high estate taxes, and low gift taxes.
The Federal Government can
tax an activity that Congress believes is harmful or dangerous to the public
Which of the following best describes the role of the secretary of state?
the President's chief aide and advisor on matters of foreign affairs
Which is NOT a stated purpose of the United Nations?
to promote free trade throughout the world
For the first part of the country's history, American foreign policy could be described most accurately as
a desire for noninvolvement
A key role of the secretary of state is
offering advice on foreign affairs to the President.
A period of détente with the Soviet Union ended with the
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
The secretary of defense is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
selecting the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Since 1965 the immigration policy of the United States, as enforced by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, has emphasized
refugee status and family reunification.
The contrasting foreign policies of the United States that followed World War I and World War II can best be summarized as a shift from
isolationism to internationalism
A major feature of American foreign policy since World War II has been
Since the end of the cold war, which region of the world has shaped American foreign policy the MOST?
The position of the United States in the Middle East can best be described as that of
supporter of both Israel and most Arab countries
The duties of the Immigration and Naturalization Service include
all of the above.
The principle of ____ works to keep international peace and order by uniting most world nations
Ambassadors are regularly granted ____, which means that they are not subject to the laws of the state in which they serve
The Selective Service System or ____, requires that certain citizens serve in the military
UN Security Council
The 15 members of the ____ work to maintain international peace
In the early part of United States history, the American people were chiefly interested in ____, or what was happening at home
The United States offers foreign aid MOSTLY to
support struggling democracies and countries that are critical to foreign policy objectives
What do the Customs Service, Public Health Service, and Coast Guard have in common?
an involvement with the foreign and defense policies of the United States
Regional security alliances
are an attempt to meet aggression collectively
What do the CIA, Customs Service, and the Coast Guard have in common?
They are all have a role in foreign relations
The United States does not have a major strategic military alliance in the Middle East mainly because
the United States wants to maintain friendly relations with both Arabs and Israelis
Which historic world event finally ended the United States' commitment to a policy of isolationism?
World War II
Which does NOT accurately describe the secretary of defense?
must have served active military duty within 10 years of appointment
The main reason for the formation of the United Nations was
to save future generations from wars
During the cold war, American relations with the Soviet Union were dominated by
Since the end of the cold war, American foreign policy has recognized that
there are several new threats to world security
The United States Public Health Service has a role in foreign affairs by
working with the United Nations to prevent disease and meet other health related problems throughout the world
The policy of giving economic and military assistance to other countries is known as ____.
The CIA's covert activities are known collectively as the practice of ____.
right of legation
The ____ allows nations to send and receive diplomatic representatives.
Making a country seem too powerful to be attacked is known as ____.
The ____ was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense and often hostile.
The independence of the judicial branch is ensured by the
all of the above
A federal court has jurisdiction over a case if
all of the above.
Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over all of the following types of cases EXCEPT cases involving
citizens of different States
The list of cases to be heard by a court is called a
Which of the following federal courts exercises both original and appellate jurisdiction?
the Supreme Court
Which one of the following duties is NOT performed by a United States magistrate?
recording court proceedings
All of the following statements about the Court of Federal Claims are true EXCEPT:
Decisions from the Court of Federal Claims cannot be appealed
Judges of the constitutional courts are appointed
Which of the following are all special courts?
Court of Federal Claims, U.S. Tax Court, Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
The federal officers who make arrests, secure jurors, and serve legal papers are
Which statement about differences between constitutional courts and special courts is TRUE?
Special courts hear a much narrower range of cases.
Which of the following could be the subject of a criminal case tried in federal court?
The United States Tax Court hears
The purposes of the 12 federal courts of appeals include all of the following EXCEPT
to hear original cases that have bypassed lower courts.
Most importantly, the Supreme Court is called the High Court because it is the
last court in which federal questions can be decided.
The MOST accurate reason that the Court of International Trade is classified as a constitutional court rather than a special court is that
it exercises the broad "judicial power of the United States."
can hear and decide cases on the basis of
the subject matter or people affected by the case
The court that first hears a case is said to have
The power of judicial review is held
by most federal and State courts.
Legal cases in the District of Columbia and the territories that belong to the United States are settled in:
a separate system of courts for each territory and each district like those at the State and federal levels.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes once said that the Constitution "means what the judges say it means." He was defining the Supreme Court's
power of judicial review
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe federal district courts?
Like courts of appeals, they have the right to listen to appeals
The Supreme Court's decision in Marbury v. Madison
established the Court's power of judicial review
One weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that
it did not provide for a national judiciary.
The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit differs from the other 12 federal courts of appeals because it
hears cases from across the country
The MOST IMPORTANT reason why the United States needed a national court system was that
each State was interpreting laws for itself.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about a writ of certiorari?
The Supreme Court grants cert in a limited numbers of instances.
Which federal court has original jurisdiction over MOST cases heard in federal court?
The term of office for constitutional court judges is determined by
Which of the following statements about the Supreme Court is FALSE?
The Supreme Court only reads briefs; it does not hear oral arguments
Jurisdiction DIRECTLY limits
which court may decide a case
The courts of appeals hear cases that have been appealed from
all of the above
Which of the following statements about federal judges is TRUE?
They are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
Protections against arbitrary acts of the government are technically known as ____.
The ____ sets up the separation between church and state
Due Process Clause
States cannot deny the basic provisions of the Bill of Rights to their citizens because of the ____ of the 14th Amendment
During a speech at a rally, you are not free to ____ another person
____ give reporters some protection against having to disclose their sources or reveal other confidential information in legal proceedings
Laws against seditious speech have been upheld by the Supreme Court if they
urge people to overthrow the government.
A person may do as he or she chooses in this country
as long as that person does not infringe on the rights of others.
Which has received the most limited 1st Amendment protection?
radio and television
Without freedom of expression,
democracy could not exist
Under the Establishment Clause, the government still has the power to do all of the following EXCEPT
establish an acceptable voluntary prayer for use in public schools.
positive acts of government that seek to make constitutional guarantees a reality for all
false and malicious use of the printed word
guarantee of association
the right to gather with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
expression by conduct such as carrying a sign or wearing an armband
Free Exercise Clause
protects the right to hold one's own religious beliefs
The government's rules must be ____, meaning that while the government can regulate assemblies on the basis of time, place, and manner, it cannot regulate assemblies on the basis of what may be expressed.
Private schools that are church-related are known as ____ schools.
The right of people to gather together to express their views on public matters is known as the right to ____.
is the advocating of conduct intended to disrupt the lawful acts of the government with violence
Government action seeking to curb ideas before they are expressed is called ____.
Which of the following statements about commercial speech is TRUE?
Commercial speech is protected by the 1st and 14th amendments
The Free Exercise Clause gives people the right to
believe whatever they choose to believe in matters of religion
A democracy must allow freedom of expression, otherwise
democracy does not really exist
An argument for government control of assemblies involves the
duty of government to protect the public
The 10 amendments known as the Bill of Rights were originally intended as restrictions against
the new National Government
The Supreme Court has ruled that demonstrations on private property
are not protected by the First Amendment if demonstrators are trespassing
The Free Exercise Clause gives people the right to
hold any religious beliefs
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution
guarantee of association
the right to assemble and petition with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
foreign-born, noncitizen , picketing
patrolling of a business site by workers on strike
crime of attempting to overthrow the government by force
Which of the following statements about civil rights is NOT true?
Rights are extended only to citizens
Individual rights were included in the Constitution because
the people demanded a listing of rights.
Government has the right to make reasonable rules regulating assemblies
to protect against the inciting of violence or the endangerment of life
In deciding cases involving laws against sedition, the Supreme Court has
developed the "clear and present danger" rule
The Due Process Clause guarantees that
States will not deny people any basic or essential liberties
States will not deny people any basic or essential liberties
Which of the following is NOT one of the public places in which people have a constitutional right to hand out political literature?
Which of the following statements about prior restraint is TRUE?
The Supreme Court has only rarely upheld prior restraints
The main reason that there is no exact definition of the due process guarantees is that the
The Supreme Court only defines the guarantees on a case-by-case basis.
The only crime that is specifically defined in the Constitution is
The most important difference between procedural and substantive due process is that
procedural due process deals with governmental methods and how they are used, whereas substantive due process deals with the fairness of laws.
The Supreme Court cases Jones v. Mayer (1968) and Runyon v. McCrary (1976) have
strengthened the 13th Amendment by upholding the right of Congress to outlaw discrimination against minorities
The 13th Amendment forbids
slavery and most forms of involuntary servitude
The right to privacy inherent in the concept of due process has been applied with the most controversy recently in cases involving
The main purpose of the exclusionary rule is to
deter police misconduct
In Furman v. Georgia, 1972, the Court ruled that
existing death penalty laws were unconstitutional because they gave too much discretion to judges and juries.
Under the 2nd Amendment,
each State has the right to have a militia
Which of the following was declared by the Supreme Court to be "cruel and unusual punishment"?
denying inmates needed medical treatment
The writ of habeas corpus is intended to prevent
the accused from being unjustly arrested and imprisoned without cause
Because the Supreme Court has never found the 2nd Amendment to be within the meaning of the 14th Amendment's Due Process clause,
States can limit the right to keep and bear arms.
The guarantee against double jeopardy protects a person from being tried
twice for the same crime.
The States' police power is defined as the right to
punish those who commit crimes against the citizenry
The main reason the Constitution dealt specifically with the crime of treason was that
the Framers knew the charge of treason can be used for political reasons.
When arresting a person, police must
have probable cause to believe the person is involved in criminal activity
According to the Supreme Court, capital punishment
is not cruel and unusual punishment
For an arrest to be lawful, police must have either a warrant or
A grand jury
issues an indictment when it finds enough evidence to warrant a trial
The inclusion of two due process clauses in the Constitution reflects the fact that
the Bill of Rights is for the National Government, and the 14th Amendment is for the States and their local governments
A(n) ____, requires the police to bring a prisoner before the court and explain why he or she should not be released.
writ of habeas corpus
The 6th Amendment's guarantee of a speedy and public trial is aimed at
trying those accused of crimes without undue delay and avoiding secret trials
Current polls indicate that two of every three Americans support ____ for those convicted of murder
The ____ says that evidence gained as a result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whom it was seized
The defendant had a(n) ____ with only a judge deciding the case.
The prohibition of ____ prevents a person from being tried twice for the same crime.
bill of attainder
Neither Congress nor the States can pass a(n) ____ that inflicts punishment without a court trial
The ____ begins with these words: "You have the right to remain silent."
In order to obtain a warrant, police must have
Prosecutors in States often use a(n) ____ to show that there is enough evidence to bring a person to trial.
Which of the following statements about the 4th Amendment is TRUE?
It forbids unreasonable searches and seizures
To have a fair trial, a person is guaranteed all of the following EXCEPT
media coverage if demanded.
is the process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
More than a third of the nation's Native Americans live on the ____ set aside for them by the government
The Federal Government's chief response to the effects of past discriminatory practices based on race, color, and sex is the policy of ____.
In the past, women have been denied which of the following?
all of the above
Citizenship by birth is determined by the rules
of jus soli and jus sanguinis
Over time, the makeup of the American population has become
An amnesty program was established by the Immigration and Reform Act of 1986 to address which of the following problems?
Undocumented aliens had troubled and divided many groups.
Laws that treat men and women differently
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria
The Constitution's statement regarding the equality of all persons can be found in both
the 14th Amendment and the Due Process Clause.
One test that the Supreme Court uses to determine the validity of laws that discriminate between groups of people is the
rational basis test.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlaws discrimination in public accommodations and hiring practices
The continuing theme of immigration policy in the United States has been to
adapt regulations to fit changing conditions at a particular time.
is the process of bringing a group into equal membership in society.
The United States population can be described as being mainly a nation of ____.
Alan Bakke charged the University of California with ____ after he was denied admission to their medical
The response of the Supreme Court to affirmative action programs today can BEST be described as
conservative in rendering decisions.
Which part of the Constitution declares that a person can become an American citizen either by birth or naturalization?
A person can become a citizen of the United States by all of the following means EXCEPT
illegally crossing the Mexican border into Texas
One reason that women earn 80 cents for every dollar earned by men is that
on average, only low paying occupations were open to women
In regard to the issue of equality, the Constitution states that
no person can be denied equal protection of the laws
Congress did not pass civil rights legislation from the 1870s to the late 1950s MAINLY because
those in power were unaware, unconcerned, or strongly opposed
The first major Supreme Court case that challenged affirmative action was
University of California v. Bakke.
With ____, the Federal Government hopes to overcome effects of past discrimination
Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka?
It quickly brought about integration of schools in this country
What is the role of the emperor in Japanese government today?
He serves as the symbol of the people's unity
Like the Constitution of the United States, Mexico's fundamental law establishes a national government
with three separate, independent branches
The main difference between the constitutions of China and the United States is that
the Chinese constitution reflects current government policy, not fundamental law
The national government of China is composed of two main bodies, the
National People's Congress and the State Council
The first constitutional framework for an independent Mexico was established under the leadership of
General Santa Anna in 1824
In Mexico's local government system, each state has all of the following EXCEPT
a separate president
The People's Republic of China regards Taiwan as
one of its provinces
The Mexican constitution of 1917
established a system in which the government played a more active role in promoting the quality of Mexican life
Where it exists in industrialized democracies today, the tradition of hereditary rule, or ____, is largely ceremonial.
In Great Britain, most cabinet members or ____ are members of the House of Commons
In Japan's National Diet, politicians seek to reach ____, or broad agreements, on issues, placing great emphasis on avoiding confrontation.
In 1938, President Cardenas of Mexico oversaw the ____ of all United States oil companies in his country, acquiring them for public use.
In Mexico, a person with Spanish and Native American ancestry is referred to as ____.
Under the process of devolution, the British Parliament has reserved for itself exclusive powers in the areas of
defense, foreign policy, and macroeconomic policy
Which of the following statements best describes the regional and local government structure present in Mexico today?
Mexico is divided into 31 states and I Federal District, with each state providing for a governor, unicameral legislature and state courts
In England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, the final court of appeals in all cases is
the House of Lords
a temporary alliance of parties for the purpose of forming a government
broad agreement among politicians seeking to avoid confrontation
Gorbachev's plan for the restructuring of political and economic life in the Soviet Union
a function of the British Parliament in which appointed opposition party members watch over present cabinet members in case of a shift in majority leadership
Japan is a unitary state, so its individual prefectures have
much less power than the individual States in the United States.
Unlike the Constitution of the United States, China's constitution is intended to
reflect current government policies
In China's political structure, the central government's control over local subdivisions is best described as
In Japan, the process by which the prime minister can excuse the House of Representatives and trigger a general election in which voters fill all 500 seats is called
The collapse of the Soviet communist government was mainly due to
its own inability to accommodate the rising demand for widespread democratic reform.
Which of the following best describes the written portion of the British constitution?
It consists of historic charters, acts of Parliament and innumerable court decisions
Soviet dictator Josef Stalin resorted to ____ in an attempt to rid his country of rivals and dissent
Japan has 47 ____, the political subdivisions into which the country is divided
was the policy of openness under which the Soviet government increased toleration of dissent and freedom of expression.
North American Free Trade Agreement
The ____ removed trade restrictions among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which increased cross-border trade
In Great Britain, the process of ____ allowed some political authority to be passed from the central government to regional governments.
Which political party has dominated Japanese politics since the end of World War II?
Liberal Democratic Party
In today's Russia, the Communist party is
one of several political parties
Because of term limits and short session work, the General Congress in Mexico has
a far less significant governing role that the United States Congress
Today, the Republic of Taiwan regards China as
Which of the following exerts the most influence over the policies and actions of Japan's House of Representatives?
the Liberal Democratic Party
In October of 1949, ____ became the first leader of the People's Republic of China
In the United Kingdom, courts and judges may never overrule the policies of
The structure of the Chinese Communist Party is similar to that of
the former Soviet Union's Communist Party
Which of the following best describes the role of the English monarchy today?
to serve as a figurehead of state
elected councils that made up the government of the Soviet Union at the factory, farm, city, regional and national levels
a step the prime minister of Japan may take leading to the immediate election of a new House of Representatives
a period in Chinese history marked by political and social unrest
The customs and practices of British government are derived from
an unwritten constitution.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of socialism in a developing country?
Socialism requires the implementation of a free enterprise system
The type of business organization that is owned by two or more individuals sharing the collective resources of those individuals is known as a
Karl Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto as
a call to all oppressed workers to free themselves from "capitalistic enslavement."
The type of business organization whose income is subject to two taxes, one on profits and one on dividends, is a
A distinctive feature of capitalism is that
most productive property is owned and operated by private individuals or companies
In a mixed economy
the government and private enterprise coexist as major participants.
The ideas of socialism developed in large part as a
reaction to poverty and hardships caused by the Industrial Revolution.
Which of the following include the basic factors of production?
land, labor, management, and capital
A single business is a ____ if it has achieved exclusive control over a product or service.
Marx considered factory workers and other members of the ____ to be modern-day versions of serfs
Stalin achieved the ____ of agriculture by combining millions of small, private farms into huge government-controlled farms.
laws of supply and demand
According to the ____, the price of an item sold in a competitive market will go up as it becomes more popular.
If the expenses of a business are more than the income earned, the business has experienced a(n)
Public ownership of productive property combined with large-scale centralized planning is a representative trait of which economic system?
One concern that socialists have about capitalism is that
it creates economic inequality within a society
Marx envisioned communism in its final form as a
free and classless society.
The amount of money earned after subtracting the costs associated with that earning is known as
Private individuals and companies decide what products to manufacture and what prices to charge for goods and services in a
Karl Marx advocated the overthrow of the ____ by the workers, whom they oppressed
Collective farms brought together into larger, centralized units were called ____.
Stalin introduced centralized planning run by a large, governmental agency known as the ____.
Socialism is often criticized for
burying individual initiative under layers of bureaucracy.
Because private enterprise and government coexist together in American economic life, the economic system is called a
Which of the following was Gorbachev's program of perestroika designed to address?
the decline of economic growth and productivity throughout the Soviet Union
Which of the following actions or policies was based primarily on Marx's theory of socialism?
Communist party control of all social, political, and economic institutions
An advantage of a sole proprietorship is that
the owner can make business decisions quickly
According to communist theory, the value of a commodity is determined by the
amount of labor put into it.
Those who support socialism argue that it
decreases social and economic inequalities among people.
law that relates to human conduct, disputes between private parties, and disputes between private parties and government not covered by criminal law
powers of mercy that may be shown towards those convicted of a crime
Justice of the Peace
the lowest level of the State judicial system, presiding over what are commonly called justice courts
Many governors use the ____ to reject only those parts of a bill that they find unacceptable.
When following ____, judges interpret and apply laws in a way that is consistent with earlier court decisions.
A governor may release a person from the legal consequences of a crime by invoking his power to ____.
In most State governments, the secretary of state
acts as the chief clerk and record-keeper.
In some States, a serious criminal case may be heard without a petit jury if the
accused waives the right to a trial by jury.
All of the following are nonlegislative powers held by State legislatures EXCEPT the
The primary cause of long State constitutions is
distrust of the government.
The fundamental laws of each State are
the State constitution.
Which action is based on the police power of State legislatures?
requiring the use of seat belts
Which State was the first in which popular approval played a direct role in the adoption and ratification of a State constitution?
How long are the terms of State legislators?
2 or 4 years
The names of potential jurors are often selected from
motor vehicle and driver's license lists
The ____ is the usual device by which new State constitutions are written and older constitutions revised.
The ____ is a petition procedure by which voters may remove an elected official from office before the completion of his or her regular term.
A legislative matter referred to a States' voters for approval or rejection is done so through a process of ____.
Public wrongs such as drug dealing, auto theft, and arson are violations of ____ and are prosecuted by the State
The ____ is a petition procedure by which voters may remove an elected official from office before the completion of his or her regular term
In 27 States, voters may propose the passage of laws by
In States that have a bicameral legislature, the lower house
elects a speaker to preside.
Today, the most widely used method for selecting judges to sit in State and local courts is
Most State legislatures today are
Which of the following could be among the informal requirements for State legislators?
was the first State in which popular electorate participation played a large part in the constitution-making process
Unlike a grand jury, a petit jury
is a trial jury used in both civil and criminal cases
Which of the following is NOT true of each State's constitution?
Each State constitution takes priority over all provisions of federal law.
Most State constitutions need reform because they are
all of the above.
The major function of ____ is to determine whether the evidence against a person charged with a crime is sufficient to justify a trial.
a grand jury
The branch of law called equity
is used to prevent potential wrongs before they occur
Which of the following is responsible for the formal interpretation of a State's constitutional and statutory law?
the attorney general
The popular election of judges is supported mainly on the grounds that
it makes those who apply the law directly accountable to the people
The form of law enacted both by the people, through referendum or initiative, and by legislative bodies is called
a court order authorizing or making legal some official action
the authority to review the decisions of lower
crime of a lesser offense, punishable by a small fine and/or a short jail term
According to most State constitutions, if a governor resigns or leaves office midterm the ____ serves the remainder of his term
All of the following include examples of federal limitations placed on State and local taxing powers EXCEPT
the taxing of cigarettes and alcohol
Which of the following include examples of the ways in which metropolitan areas attempt to meet fiscal challenges?
the annexation of outlying areas
State budgets vary greatly according to the degree of ____ in each State
Many weaknesses of county government are caused by the lack of
a centralized executive authority.
A major factor affecting the economy and budget of most States is
degree of urbanization
All of the following include examples of the common functions of counties EXCEPT the
dividing of land into residential, commercial, and industrial zones.
At the State and local level, the first step in the typical budget process is that
each agency prepares estimates of its needs and expenditures for the upcoming year.
an independent unit created to perform one or more government functions at the local level
a heavily populated urban center and its surrounding communities
provides medical insurance to low income families
the division of cities or towns into areas legally reserved for residential, commercial, or industrial use
The purpose of a State budget is to
decide which agencies receive money and how much.
All of the following factors contributed to the growth of the nation's suburbs after World War II EXCEPT
the need for less privacy
An unreasonable tax classification would be one aimed exclusively at
people over 65
States with a high level of ____ reflect the special challenges of governing heavily populated areas, such as the expense of managing roads and traffic
A selective ____ applies only to specific products like alcohol and cigarettes, and is paid by the buyer
In its ____, the State sets out its fiscal priorities and decides which agencies receive funds and how much
The ____ is the city's basic laws and commonly names the city, describes its boundaries, and declares it to be a municipal corporation
Which statement is true about all counties in the United States?
They can only be created by the State.
Which of the following is true of a budget?
all of the above
In most States, people buying new cars must pay both
sales and property taxes
Which of the following services are provided by both State AND local government?
education and public safety
The dramatic shift from a rural to an urban population was first made possible on a large scale by the
The planning method most cities rely on to classify and control land use within their boundaries is called
State constitutions may limit taxes for
religious and other nonprofit groups.
All of the following are among the major elements of the structure of county government EXCEPT
an independent executive board.
the determination of the value of property
cash assistance to the poor by the States
a major unit of local government in most States, created by the State
Most States have some form of ____, which are levied on the earnings of individuals and corporations.
The ____ is comprised of five popularly elected officials, who form the city council, pass ordinances, and control local government
In many Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States, counties are divided into subdivisions called ____.
The main purpose of a city's charter is to
set out the city's basic laws.
The main reason that States hold many important powers is that the
Framers distrusted a strong central government.
City zoning is most often opposed on the grounds that it
denies people the right to use their property as they choose
The United States Constitution reserves to the States all powers not delegated to Congress or denied to the States, meaning that the States
hold a great number of powers.
The shift from rural to urban society in the United States was due to
all of the above
As a type of local government, special districts are created to
meet specified public needs