countries that have institutionalized democracy and a high level of economic development and prosperity
a system of government in which the state has control over the lives of its citizens.
Legislatures that possess two chambers.
a legislature with only one chamber or house
bureaucratic authoritarian regimes
authoritarian regimes in which bureaucracies have a certain amount of control
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
where several parties join forces and are represented in different cabinet posts, forms in countries with a multi-party system where there is no clear majority
The belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy
A division that strengthens feelings of difference and discrepancy, weakening society.
cleavage that strengthens society by bringing groups together
Economic systems in which the government largely decides what goods and services will be produced, who will get them, and how the economy will grow.
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
a written set of laws that apply to everyone under a government
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
elections that are regular, free, and fair and that offer a real possibility of the incumbent government being defeated
A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
conflictual political culture
the citizens are sharply divided, often on both the legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems
consensual political culture
citizens tend to agree on the appropriate means of making political decisions and to agree on the major problems facing the society and how to solve them
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Federal courts created by Congress under Article III of the Constitution, including the district courts, courts of appeals, &specialized courts such as the U.S. Court of International Trade
allocation of power throughout various political, social, and economic institutions
A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.
a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all kinds of human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality.
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
a country with a stable political system in which all of the major actors seeking political influence accept democratic competition, citizen participation, and the rule of law.
representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Philosophy that aims to limit the power of the state and increase the power of the market and private property in an economy.
A set of rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in the legislature
a group or class of persons enjoying superior intellectual or social or economic status
Information gathered from sensory observation and experimentation
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
first-past-the-post (plurality, winner-take-all)
Electoral system based on single-member districts in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
Fragmentation occurs when cities and/or the counties create separate organizations and infrastructures to provide the same services.
Freedom House ratings
"A rating system in which countries are rated from 1, most free, to 7, least free".
a mathematical formula that measures the amount of economic inequality in a society
growth to a global or worldwide scale
measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991
former measure of the United States economy
GNP per capita
The value of a nationality's final output of goods and services in a year, divided by its population
the act of governing
head of government
the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
head of state
the chief public representative of a country who may also be the head of government
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
Countries that have regular, free, fair elections, but are missing other qualities(Civil liberties,rule of law, etc.)
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables
(statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable
indications of democratization
The essential characteristic of democratization is the presence of regular competitive elections.
Form of democracy in which individuals are represented by appointed representatives.
Takes into consideration not only the ways that politicians operate outside their formal powers, but also the impact that beliefs, values, and the actions of ordinary citizens have on policy-making
readiness to embark on bold new ventures
organizations where governmental power is exercised
given the character of an institution or incorporated into a structured and usually well-established system
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
interest group pluralism
Competition among open, responsive, and diverse groups help preserve democratic values and limits the concentration of power in any single group.
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
legitimacy (traditional, charismatic, rational-legal)
Political legitimacy is the general belief that the government has the right to rule/
exercise power. When people believe that they ought to obey the laws, legitimacy is high. When people see no reason to obey them, or only comply with them out of fear, legitimacy is low. Governments with high legitimacy are the most effective.
systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free-market system in the area of economic production
liberalism as a political ideology
Maximize freedom for all people, including speech, religion, and association. Also have right to disagree with state decisions.
liberalism as an approach to economic and political change
Political and economic doctrine that emphasizes the rights and freedoms of the individual and the need to limit the powers of government.
the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Individuals make their own decisions about what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it.
The state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
Rule by one or more military officials, often brought to power through a coup d'état.
Economic systems in which some allocation of resources is made by the market and some by the government
mixed electoral system
An electoral system that uses a combination of single-member districts and proportional representation
Legislative districts containing more than one seat
an electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official (not voting for more than one person for any position)
political party system that recognizes 3 or more major political parties
a politically organized body of people under a single government
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
a question whose answer is based on an opinion
A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president.
A concept in political science that political parties control government
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Relations in which "Patron" gains support of "Client" through mutual exchange of benefits and obligations.
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
the doctrine that reality consists of several basic substances or elements
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
persons with a disproportionate share of political power
Structures of a political system that carry out the work of the governing.
An organized system of political beliefs, values, and ideas.
Increasing citizen rights and liberties and minimizing government supervision of society/individuals
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
politicization of religion
the use of religious principles to promote political ends and vise versa
Purchasing Power Parity: evens exchange rates between currencies, compares goods to other countries goods
a system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Decision making process involving; universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness
representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote
the political orientation of those who favor revolutionary change in government and society
oppose revolution, reform, and status quo. want to 'turn back the clock' and reinstate institutions that once existed. similar to radicals b/c both most willing to use violence.
recruitment of elites
Ways to identify and select people for future leadership positions.
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
self-improvement in behavior or morals by abandoning some vice
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
revolution of rising expectations
revolutions are most likely to occur when people are doing better than they once were, but some type of setback happens
rule of law
a state of order in which events conform to the law
Samuel Huntington's "clash of civilizations"
People's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
System in which a prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people and who holds a significant degree of power.
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
material or symbolic devices that identify who is inside or outside a group
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
Religion, ethnic groups, race, social and economic classes, which interact with the political system and have an impact on policy making.
Active and sustained efforts to achieve social and political change by groups of people who feel that government has not been properly responsive to their concerns.
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
societal corporatism (neo-corporatism)
Corporatism where interest groups take the lead and dominate the state
government free from external control
a politically organized body of people under a single government
a political system in which the state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group, with the result that the state gains substantial control over interest groups and interest groups channel or control their members' political and economic advocacy
processes that involve obedience such as obeying laws, following military orders, and paying taxes
The view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policymaking procedure.
a group of people or things arranged or following in order
highly-educated bureaucrats who make decisions based on their perceptions of technical issues rather than political ones
"third wave" of democratization
systems based on individual freedoms and civil liberities and boasting fairer civic institutions, more active media , objective judiciaries, and stronger property rights
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
(Used until early 1990's) largely based on cold war politics. The three worlds were The U.S and allies, Soviet Union and allies, and "third world" nations. Comparisons based on democracy vs. authoritarianism and communism vs. capitalism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Institution in an authoritarian government that "transmits" its interests to the political elites.
The presentation of a company's facts and figures in a way that is clear and apparent to all stakeholders
a political system dominated by two major parties
tyranny of the majority
The potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gain to the detriment of minority rights and interests.
political systems in which power is concentrated in a central government