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international regimes

are sets of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area.

With respect to international regimes, which of the following is true?

B) International regimes coordinate the behavior of states to assist them in overcoming collective goods problems.

international regimes

are stronger when embedded in permanent institutions

when a broad grouping of major actors comes together to jointly oppose another actor's aggression, this is known as

collective security

the success of collective security depends on

members keeping their commitments to the group and members agreeing on what constitutes aggression

feminists argue that with respect to IR

feminity is associated eith private and domestic areas, whereas masculinity is associated with political spaces

some ______ feminists believe that there are real differences between the genders based on their biological essence, whereas _____ feminists believe that men and women are equal

difference, liberal

_____ feminists find important differences between men and women that are arbirtary and flexible, whereas _______ feminists consider those differences trivial

postmodern, liberal

difference feminists argue that realism involves assumptions of masculinity because of the principle of

seperate autonomous actors, alliances that are not permanent, pursuit of national interest, anarchic international politics and ordered domestic politics (all of the above)

an international system based on feminine principles would include which of the following characteristcs

responsibility of the people to care for each other regardless of national borders

with respect to the impact of gender on war and peace, difference feminists believe that

women are inherently more peaceful than men

liberal feminists

believe that female leaders are no more peaceful than male leaders, believe that female state leaders are no less committed to state soverignty and territorial integrity than male leaders, would like to see more women involved in foreign policy making and the military, believe that no distinctly feminine feature of their behavior in their office distinguishes female leaders from their male counterparts (all of the above)

with respect to women in the military

the evidence suggests that they perform comparably to men in a variety of roles

in order for women to have a profound influence on IR

they need to participate in key foreign policy positions in large numbers around the world

what is NOT a critique of realism from the postmodern perspective

international institutions are important actors in IR

for postmodernists, the breakup of the Soviet Union into 15 soverign states is evidence of a problem with which belief of realists

states have universal interests

when postmodernists "deconstruct" realism, what do they find missing from its accounts of IR

the roles of individuals and multinational corporations and the role of domestic poltics and the experiencs of poor countries (B and C)

postmodern feminists

do not believe there is any fixed, inherent meaning or essence in the female gender

consideration of the role of sexual drives in decisions about the use of th force is characteristic of

postmodern feminism

peace studies focuses on which levels of analysis

individual, domestic, and global

the glorification of war and military force, and the structing of society around war is known as

militarism

positive peace

resolves the underlying reasons for war

proponents of positive peace call for

an end to strucutral violence, alternatives to war as a method for conflict resolution, the development of a gloval identity transcending national, ethnic, and religious divisions, strengthening norms against the use of violence (all of the above)

with respect to the US peace movement since WWI

an internationalist wing has seen international organization as the best hope for peace and has supported wars against aggression, whereas a pacifist wing has opposed all wars and favored more radical social change to achieve positive peace

the first attempt at creating a collective security system was the

League of Nations

when women won the right to vote after WWI

they generally voted like their husbands

conflict resolution

refers to the development and implementation of peaceful strategies for settling conflicts and is used more often and is more successful in the post-Cold War period (A and B)

with respect to conflict resolution

arbitration is when a mediator listens to each side's ideas and presents them in a way the other side can hear

constructivism

is interested in how actors define their national interests threats to those interests and their relationships to one another, relies heavily on international norms and their power to constrain state actions, examines how states' interests and identites are intertwined, contends that over time states can conceptualize one anothe in such a way that there is no danger of a security dilemma or arms race (all of the above)

how can liberal theories of IR be distinguished form realism

realists see the rules of IR as timeless and unchangin, whereas liberal theorists see the rules of IR as evolving incrementally

with respect to warfare

today's most serious conflicts regarding conflicts mainly skirmishing rather than all-out battles

which of the following is NOT an explanation by Immanuel Kant of how peace and cooperation are possible

international regimes can solve the collective goods problem by increasing transparency

Marxist approaches to IR hold that both IR and the domestic politcs arise from unequal relationships between

economics classes

Marxism

argues that the more powerful classes oppress and exploit the less powerful by denying them their fair share of the surplus they create and was oriented toward domestic society in the industrializing countries of Marx's time (A and B)

How can one distinguish between difference and liberal feminism

difference feminists believe that individual women in foreign policy and the military differ from their male counterparts, whereas liberal feminists believe women as a group do not differ

which of the following is true

democracies almost never fight each other

the theory of imperialism that argued that European capitalists were investing in colonies where they could earn big profits, and then using part of those profits to buy off the working class back home, was developed by

Lenin

tit for tat is

a strategy of strict reciprocity after an initial cooperative move

foreign policy

is the strategy used by governments to guide their actions in the international arena and emphasizes the individual and domestic levels of analysis (A and C)

the sequence of steps in the rational model of decision making is

clarify goals, order goals by importance, list alternatives to achieve goals, investigate consequences of alternatives, and choose the course of action

which of the following complicates the rational decision model of decision making

uncertaintiy about the costs and benefits of a particular action

which of the following is NOT consistent with the activies pursued in the process of rational decision making

satisficing

the _____ model of decision making relies on standard operating procedures

organizational process

the ____ model of decision making consists of negotiations between bureaucratic agencies with divergent interests

government bargaining

decisions of individuals can most frequently diverge from the raional model because of

information screens and affective bias

______ refers to the emotions felt by decision makers when they consider the consequences of their actions

affective bias

____ refers to the limitations of the human brain in making choices

cognitive bias

cognitive balance, or the maintence of a logically consistent mental model of the world, can be achieved through

wishful thinking

according to the concept of bounded rationality

decision makers will choose a response taht is good enough to meet some minimal criteria

individual decision making

cannot be perfectly rational because of the different values, goals, and perceptions of decision makers and is influenced by the dyanimcs of groups surronding the leader (B and C)

groups in foreign policy decision making

promote rationality in decision making and introduce new sources of irrationality in decision making (A and B)

____ is the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences, since individual members tend to go along with ideas they think others support

groupthink

which of the following is NOT an aspect of the structure of a group's decision-making process that can affect the outcome

meeting time

a crisis is a foreign policy situation characterized by

severe time constraints and decison makers under stress

actors in domestic politics involved in the foreign policy process include

interest groups, the media, bureaucracis, legislatures (all of the above)

diplomats

work in embasies and consulates abroad

with respect to the roles of bureacratic agencies in foreign policy making

bargaining amont agencies suggests that a state does not have a single national interest

among the interest groups that lobby governments on foreign policy issues are

other governments, ethnic groups concerned about their ancestral nation, wealthy buisness people, labor unions (all of the above)

public opinion

has greater force in democracies than in authoritarian governments

public support for involvement in a war

typicall starts high and decreases over the long run and will tend to improve the popularity ratings of a countries leader (B and C)

the Iran-Contra Scandal resulted from the activities of which govenment agency

the National Security Council (NSC)

a kitchen cabinet is

a trusted group of friends with no formal positions in the government who discuss policy issues with the leader

politicians have a difficult time running formal bureacratic agencies becaus

the agencies can be too large and too routinized to easily control and lower-level career officials may not owe loyalty to the politicians (A and B)

the part of the population that stays informed about international issues is called the

attentive public

diversionary foreign policy is

adopting a foreign policy to distract public attention from domestic issues

on what principle do most constructivist explanations draw

identity

with respect to women in politics

the number of women serving in legislatures is increasing

____ is defined as a difference in preffered outcomes in a bargaining situation

conflict

on the individual level of analysis

wars may be the result of rational decisions of national leaders and wars may be the result of deviations from rationality by national leaders (A and B)

which of the following is NOT a possible cause of war on the domestic level of analysis

aggression of leaders

theories of the causes of war at the interstate level of analysis

include that war occurs when power is relatively equally distributed and a rising power is threatening to overtake a declining one

which of the following is NOT a tangile interest over which conflict might occur

religious differences

the value states place on home territory

is far beyond any economic or strategic value it holds

since WWII, an international norm has developed

against attempting to alter borders by force

____ is the regaining of territory lost to another stat

irredentism

successionist movements

are rarely successful, sometimes want to merge their territory with a neighboring state, are treated as domestic problems that are of little concern to other states, attempt to draw intenational borders around a province or region to create a new state (all of the above)

the breakup of multi-national states was peaceful in which instance

Czechoslovakia and Serbia and Montenagro (B and C)

interstate border disputes remain today in

Kashmir, the Middle East, and Japan/China

control of the _____ Islands in the South China Sea is a source of conflict among several countries

Spratly

which of the folllow ing NOT a reson why the control of small islandss causes serious interstate territorial disputes

they can add to the overall size of the country

territorial waters traditionally are recognized to extend how far from a state's coastline

three miles

a state's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is recognized to extend how far from the coast line

200 miles

states can exclude others from entering which of the following

12 mile limit from the coast line and airspace (A and C)

with respect to the conflict regarding control of governments

one state may attempt to exert influence on another state's elections

during the Cold War, the Soviet Union actually invaded ____ to change its government

Czechoslovakia

which factor contributes to determining whether or not economic conflict leads to violence

the use of violence would diminish the profit of economic transactions more than could be gained by such violence

economic conflicts affect international security insofar as

they derive from competition over strategic minerals, economic growth leads to geographic expansion as a state pursues natual resources beyond their borders, they concern technology transfar of high-tech weaponry, they involve the capacity to produce and trade military equipment (All of the Above)

why is drug trafficking considered an international security issue when other types of smuggling are not

military forces participate regularly in operations against heavility armed drug traffickers

ethnic groups

share ancestral, language, cultural, or religious ties and a common identity and come into conflict because they hate each other (A and B)

ethnic conflict is closely tied to conflict over

territory

examples of conflict resulting from states worrying about the fate of members of the same ethnic group living as minority in a neighboring state are

Albania-Serbia and Armenia-Azerjaijan

the tendency to see one's own group in favorable terms and other groups in unfavorable terms is

ethcnocentricism

religious conflicts are difficult to resolve because

religions deal with core values that are held as absolute truth

Islam has played a role in many recent conflicts because

it is predominant in an area of the world where geographical and historical circumstances encourage conflict

Islamic movements have gained strength in recent years in which of the following states

Afghanistan and Algeria

ideology

intensifies conflicts between states more than it causes them, helps mobilize national populations to support a state in its international dealings, tends to decline in importance after a revolution replaced by national interests, has a weaker hold on core values and absolute truth than religions do (all of the above)

____ war is a war over control of the entire world order, whereas ____ war is warfare by one state eaged to conquer and occupy anoter

hegemonic, total

the goal ____ war is to force the surrender of the enemy's government and replace it with one of the victor's choosing

total

WWII is an example of

hegemonic war

military action carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy is ____ war, whereas war between factions within a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government for the entire state of some part of it is ____ war

limited, civil

warfare without frontlines involving irregular forces is called

gurilla war

which of the following is characteristic of guerilla war

civilians are often punished along with guerilla forces because the two cannot be distinguished

a line of control divides the province of Kashmir, which is the focus of a long-running dispute between which two countries

India and Pakistan

with respect to international conflicts over the control of governments and territorial disputres, which of the following is NOT true

they are less likely to lead to the use of violence than other types of conflicts of interst

nationalism

contributed to the disintigration of large, multinational states like Austria-Hungary

with respect to self-determination, which of the following is FALSE

all nations desired self-determination have acheived it

which of the following is NOT a challenge associated with the transition from war to peace

representation in regional and international organizations

with respect to international norms against genocide

they were weaker than norms of state soverignty in the case of Darfur

which of the following statements about Islam is FALSE

Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims cooperate and are unified under the Islamist movemnt

Shi'ite Muslimslive predominantly in

Iran, southern Iraq, and southern Lebanon

Sunni Muslim fundamentalists include

the Taliban in Afghanistan, the al Qeada terrorist group, Hamas in the Palestianan territories, Chechens who have tried to split away from Russia (all of the above)

the choices about military capabilites that leaders have to make include

how much to spend on military capabilities, what types of missions a country's military forces must be able to carry out, what types of forces to have, what military equipment is necessary (all of the above)

with respect to conventional forces, all of the following is true EXCEPT

electronics, especially radar, is relied on most by artillery

which of the following is NOT provided by satellites

attack capabilites

in what way have technological developments changed the nature of military forces

the resort to force now has more profound costs and consequences, military engagements now occur at greater distances, electornics now have a greater role in command and control, and enemy computer networks are increasingly targeted by military forces and terrorists (all of the above apply)

weapons of mass destruction include

nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons

fission weapons are also known as ____, and fusion weapons are also known as _____

atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs

which of the following is a fissionable material

Uranium-235 and plutonium (C and D)

the major difficulty in building a fission weapon is that

fissionable material is very difficult to aquire

____ weapons have more explosive power but are more expensive to design and build than ____ weapons

fusion, fission

how do strategic weapons compare to tactical weapons

strategic weapons are long-range weapons, whereas tactical weapons are short-range weapons

tactical nuclear weapons

were phased out by the United States and Russia when the Cold War ended

ballistic missiles

have trajectories that typically rise out of the atmosphere and then descend

cruise missiles

can be launched from ships, submarines, airplanes, or land and can carry conventional or nuclear weapons (C and D)

agents that disrupt the functions of the human body, killing or paralyzing enemy troops or populations are

chemical weapons

with respect to chemical weapons

they have been used only rarely

a recent arms control agreement, which included strict verification mesaures and the possibility of sanctions against nonsignatories, was completed for what type of weapons

chemical

toxic susbtances taht can create diseases and epidemics when launched against enemy troops or populations are

biological weapons

because they are uncontrollable, which of the following weapons has virtually never been used in war

biological weapons

the non-proliferation treaty attempts to prevent

the spread of nuclear weapons

the agency charged with inspecting the nuclear power industry in member states to prevent secret military diversions of nucelar materials is

the International Atomic Energy Agency

defense against a nucelear weapon is currently provided by

the threat to retaliate

CIA covert operations in the 1950s overthrew governments unfreindly to the UNited States in

Iran and Guatemala

The National Security Agency

is primarily invovled with encoding US communication and breaking codes of foregin communications

which two coutnries tested nuclear weapons in 1998, leading to an increse in tensions in their region

India and Pakistan

the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty calls for the end to testing of which type of weapon

nuclear

a new concern of activists about the sale of weapons is

sales of small arms, especially assault rifles, to unstable conflict zones

which of the following countries has built up the infrastructure to enrich uranium up to weapons grade in recent years

North Korea and Libya (A and B)

the main difference between war and classic terrorism is

the form has military targets, whereas the latter has civillian targets

which of the following is characteristic of terrorism

the primary effect of terrorism is psychological

the use of terrorist groups by states to achieve politcal aims is

state-sponsored terrorism

all of the following are true about counterinsurgency EXCEPT

it is less widespread than during the Cold War

piracy has become a problem in what region of the world

South of the Cape of Good Hope Near South Africa

with respect to terrorism, which of the following is true

terrorists are more willing than states are to violate the norms of the international system because unlike states they do not have a stake in that system and terrorist activiesi do not reliably achieve politcal ends (B and C)

which of the following is NOT considered to be a sponsor of international terrorism according to the UNited States

North Korea

In Rwanda in 1994, members of the minority ___ ethnic gropu were massacred by members of the majority ______ ethnic group

Hutu, Tutsi

what action did Kosovo take in 2008 that did not have the approval of the UNited nation

declared independence from Serbia

how does liberalism compare with mercantilism

liberalism is not concerned whether one state gains more or less than another, just whether the state's wealth is increaing in absolute terms, whereas mercantilism empahsizes that each state must protect its own interests at the expense of others

when states specialize in producing the goods that they produce best and trading for goods that other states are better at producing they are operating according to

comparative advantage

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