Lab Practical

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What are the two types of data?

qualitative and quantitative

What is name of the scientific measurement system.

metric OR System International (SI)

Convert 250 mL to liters

.25 L

Microscope Parts

eyepiece, revolving nosepiece, objective, stage, base, observation tube, stand (arm), specimen holder (stage clip), condenser, main switch, sliding control lever, fine adjustment knob, soars adjustment knob, tension adjustment knob, tension adjustment ring, observation tube clamping screw, interpupillary distance scale, diopter adjustment ring

low-power magnification

40X

medium-power magnification

100X

high-dry magnification

400X

oil-immersion magnification

1000X

orientation of images with a compound microscope

upside down or backwards

orientation of images with a dissection scope

top and bottom

Explain why some microscopes are called COMPOUND microscopes, but others are called dissection scopes

the compound microscopes have 2 lenses - the ocular lens and objective lens

differences between compound microscopes and dissection scopes

dissection scope's stage is farther from the objective lens; dissection scope is for large specimens and compound is for smaller specimens; dissecting microscope usually has less magnification than a compound microscope

Explain how to make a wet-mount.

Place specimen on slide, add a drop or 2 of water, hold coverslip at 45 degree angle over specimen, then let it fall on the specimen.

What are prokaryotes missing in their cytoplasms?

cytomembrane system and organelles

Why do we stain objects to be observed with the microscope?

to differentiate different types of organisms or to view specific parts of organisms

How do scientists use the Gram stain?

It is based on the chemical and physical properties of a cell wall. It detects peptidoglycan, which is present in a thick layer in Gram positive bacteria. A Gram positive results in a purple/blue color while a Gram negative results in a pink/red color.

What are some differences between plant and animal cells?

* Plant cells have chloroplasts unlike animal cells
* Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells
* large central vacuole in plant cells

cell membrane

semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others

cell wall

layer of cellulose fiber that give the cell most of its support and structure; bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant

chloroplast

an elongated or disc-shaped organell containing chlorophyll; photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts

Gogli body

packages proteins and carbs into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell

granum (grana)

a stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast

mitochondrion

converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell

nucleolus

where ribosomal RNA is produced

nucleus

controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes)

ribosome

small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis

rough endoplasmic reticulum

transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

transport materials through the cell; contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Gogli body and membranes

thylakoid disk

where photosynthesis (the production of ATP molecules form sunlight) takes place

vacuole

helps maintain the shape of the cell

lysosome

where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place

vacuole

fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell

What is dialysis tubing?

selectively permeable material that provides a means to demonstrate the movement of substances through cellular membranes

Explain the difference between semipermeability and selective permeability.

semi-permeable membranes allow some particles to pass through and selectively permeable membranes choose what passes through

What is the testing solution for the presence of starch?

Iodine - Kl reagent

hypertonic

one solution containing greater concentration of solute relative to a second one

hypotonic

solution containing the lower concentration of solute molecules than another

isotonic

solutions containing equal concentrations of solute

What structure regulates what goes in and out of the cell?

membranes

What is an enzyme?

proteins that function as biological catalysts

In the potato lab, catechol was mixed with potato extract. The result was a brown color due to the presence of benzoquinone. This reaction was attempted with hydroquinone, as well.
*Which chemical is the substrate?

catechol + 1/2 O2

In the potato lab, catechol was mixed with potato extract. The result was a brown color due to the presence of benzoquinone. This reaction was attempted with hydroquinone, as well.
*Which chemical is the product?

benzoquinone

In the potato lab, catechol was mixed with potato extract. The result was a brown color due to the presence of benzoquinone. This reaction was attempted with hydroquinone, as well.
*What was being tested when hydroquinone was used?

if the enzyme catechol oxidase was able to catalyze the oxidation of 2 different but structurally similar substrates: catechol and hydroquinone

In the potato lab, catechol was mixed with potato extract. The result was a brown color due to the presence of benzoquinone. This reaction was attempted with hydroquinone, as well.
*Where is the enzyme?

in the potato extract

If you use a red filter with the spectroscope, what color(s) are absorbed by the filter?

red

If you use a blue filter with the spectroscope, what color(s) are reflected by the filter?

all other colors besides blue

Set up the formula and show a sample calculation for the Retardation Factor (Rf ).

Rf = distance traveled by pigment/distance traveled by solvent

Which stage of mitosis is the longest?

prophase

Name the order of the steps of the cell cycle.

G1, S, G2, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

What is the mnemonic for memorizing the steps of the cell cycle?

PMAT

In what phase does crossing over occur?

prophase 1

What is the most obvious benefit of crossing over?

genetic variability

What is the name of the process that results in female gametes?

oogenesis

What is the name of the statistical test that you might conduct to determine whether your values are close enough to the expected values?

Chi-squared

Give the equation of Chi-squared

*X^2= ∑▒〖(O-E)〗^2/E
E = expected number of individuals
O = observed number of individuals

Suppose that brown eye color in laboratory rats is dominant to red eye color. A heterozygous male is mated to a homozygous recessive female.
*What are the phenotypes of the parents?

male has brown eyes; female has red eyes

Suppose that brown eye color in laboratory rats is dominant to red eye color. A heterozygous male is mated to a homozygous recessive female.
*What are the genotypes of the parents?

male - Bb
female - bb

Suppose that brown eye color in laboratory rats is dominant to red eye color. A heterozygous male is mated to a homozygous recessive female.
*What is the probability of producing red-eyed children?

1:1

Suppose that brown eye color in laboratory rats is dominant to red eye color. A heterozygous male is mated to a homozygous recessive female.
*What are the genotypes?

Bb and bb

Suppose that brown eye color in laboratory rats is dominant to red eye color. A heterozygous male is mated to a homozygous recessive female.
*What is the probability of producing brown-eyed children?

1:1

Explain the main cause of the most recent mass extinctions to hit Planet Earth.

dinosaurs disappeared because a giant meteor hit earth

What is biodiversity?

The variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

What are keystone species?

species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance

How many different animal species have been identified on Earth?

about 1,370,000

What animal species has had the most influence on creating change in the world biosphere? Explain.

If you removed all of the insects the entire biosphere would collapse.

Who is Linneaus?

"Father of Taxonomy"

How is the scientific name for each species written? Name the parts of the name.

with the first name (genus) capitalized and the second name (specific epithet) not capitalized; both are in italics

What is agar?

agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose

Where does agar come from?

it is a component of the cell walls of several species of red algae

How is agar used?

use is as a culture medium for various microorganisms, particularly for bacteria

Some bacteria, such as really salty water or hot springs and geysers. What is the name of the group that most of these bacteria that live in strange environmental conditions belong to?

Archaebacteria

What do we mean by the "animal-like protista"?

share traits that animals possess like being a heterotroph and being able to move to find food

What do we mean by the "plant-like protista"?

plant-like protista are autotrophic and produce oxygen

Protozoa are classified on the basis of what characteristic?

heterotrophic

Algae are classified on the basis of what characteristic?

photosynthetic protistans

Name the divisions of alga and examples of each.

*Euglenozoa - euglenoids
*Chrysophyta - diatoms
*dinoflagellata - dinoflagellates
*Rhodophyta - red algae
*Phaeophyta - brown algae
*Chlorophyta - green aglae
*Charophyta - desmids and stoneworts

purpose of mushroom cap

to grow gills

purpose of mushroom gills

to produce spores

purpose of mushroom spores

shoot out of the gills and mix with spores from other mushroom to reproduce

What are the Divisions of fungi?

Microsporidia, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota

How are the divisions of fungi distinguished from each other?

by parasites, saprobes, and mutualists

asymmetrical

cannot cut the body into 2 like halves

radial symmetry

any cut from the mouth to the other end through the center of the animal yields 2 like halves

bilateral symmetry

cut in only one plane, parallel to the main axis and dividing the body into right and left pieces, yields like halves

coelom

ventral cavity lined by tissue derived from mesoderm

pseudocoelom

ventral cavity where mesodermal lining is incomplete

primary germ layers

ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

What phylum does the earthworm belong to?

Annelida

What class does the crawdad belong to?

Malacostraca

What class does the grasshopper belong to?

Insecta

crawdad male features

front 2 pairs of swimmerets enlarded for copulating and transferring sperm; opening of the sperm ducts at the bases of the 5th pair of walking legs

crawdad female features

seminal receptacle in the middle between the bases of the 4th and 5th pairs of walking legs and discs covering the oviducts at bases of 3rd pair

To what phylum and class does a hagfish belong?

P. Chordata; C. Myxini

To what phylum and class does a shark belong?

P. Chordata; C. Chondrichthyes

To what phylum and class does a perch belong?

P. Chordata; C. Actinopterygii

To what phylum and class does a frog belong?

P. Chordata; C. Amphibia

To what phylum and class does a rattlesnake belong?

P. Chordata; C. Reptilia

To what phylum and class does a pigeon belong?

P. Chordata; C. Aves

To what phylum and class does a rabbit belong?

P. Chordata; C. Mammalia

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