Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide--MC

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As a group, male sex hormones are called

androgens

The purpose of the counter-current mechanism is to maintain a ____________ medullary interstital fluid to facilitate the reabsorption of water to concentrate urine.

hypertonic

The hormone that stiumulates the secretion of milk from the mammary glands is

prolactin

The juxtaglomerular apparatus concsists of the juxtagloerular cells and cells of the

macula densa

The left KD is slightly higher than the right KD. Why?

to leave space for the LIV

The intracellular fluid compartment includes all the water and electrolytes enclosed by

cell membranes

Following ovulation the follicular cells of the ovary enlarge to form a structure called the

corpeus luteum

ADH is produced by cells within the

hypothalamus

The primary organs of the male reproductive system are the

testes

The triangular area on the internal floor of the UB with an opening at each of its angles is the

trigone

The volume of urine produced is regulated mainly by the activity in the distal convoluted tubule and the ______ _______ portions of the renal tubule

collecting duct

Water reabsorption occurs throughout the length of the renal tubule by the process of

osmosis

The bundles of interlaced muscular fibers in the wall of the UB comprise the ____ _____

detrusor muscle

____ ____ _____ represent the first line of defense against shifts in pH of body fluids

chemical buffer systems

Nephrons whose corpuscles are located close to the renal medulla are called

juxtamedullary nephrons

Active transport of sodium ions at the ____ membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule sets up an osmotic current that facilitates the reabsorption of multiple substances

epithelial

Intercalated cells of the late distal convoluted tubule secrete ____ into the filtrate

hydrogen

During urine formation some substances move from the plasma in the peritubular capillary into the renal tubule by the process called

secretion

The secretion of the seminal vesicles contains ____ that provides an energy source for sperm cells

fructose

The primary regulator of water intake is the mechanism of ___

thirst

Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form ____

carbonic acid

Uric acid results from the metabolism of ____

nucleic acids

Water obtained as a by-product of the oxidation of various nutrients is called ____

water metabolism

The concentration of calcium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the ____

parathyroid glands

The concentration of sodium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the _____

adrenal cortex

The cellular process by which sperm cells and egg cells are formed is called

meiosis

The culmination of sexual stimulation which is accompanied by a sense of physiological and psychological release is called

orgasm

In which of the following portions of the nephron is water actively transported?

None--not pct, descending loop of Henle nor collecting duct; it is DCT

The first step in oogenesis is

primary oocyte divides to form a secondary oocyte and a first polar body

The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the

cervix

Severe demands are placed on a persons ability to regulate body temp if body water loss exceeds

2%

Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of

decreased synthesis of estrogens

What is the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron?

Calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, UB, urethra

When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are

secreted

The amount of testosterone in the blood is increased by

LH causing the interstitial cells to release testosterone

Fertilization normally occurs in the

uterine tube

Which of the following are unpaired in males?

Prostate gland

The reabsorption of glucose occurs through the walls of the

proximal convoluted tubule

Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of indigestion may lead to

metabolic alkalosis

A pap smear is used to detect the presence of abnormal cells in the

cervix

KD stones are least likely to be composed of

cholesterol

Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent due to

electrolytes being dissolved in water

The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the male secondary sex characteristics is

testosterone

The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by ____ and by ____

vasodilation of the Afferent arteriole; renin-angiotenisin II causing vasoconstriction of the Efferent arteriole

The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by

hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is primarily controlled in the glomerular capsule by

plasma protein concentrations

The structure of the testes can be described as composed of

All; seminiferous tubules, lobules, and seminiferous tubules that unite to form the rete testis which joins the epididymis

A renal corpuscle is a ____ whereas a renal tubule is a ____

tangled cluster of blood capillaries; highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule

Prolonged vomiting in which the ST contents are lost leads to

metabolic alkaldosis

The interstitial cells of the testes produce

male sex hormones

The orgasmic platform forms during the following phase of sexual intercourse

plateau phase

Prolonged diarrhea in which the interstitial secretions are lost excessively leads to

metabolic acidosis

Hyperventilation leads to

respiratory alkadosis

The micturition reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the

cerebral cortex stimulating or inhibiting the external urethral sphincter valve

The hormone aldosterone functions to promote the

reabsorption of sodium

Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?

Administering high doses of vitamin d

Compared to males, females have

less water and more adipose

An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure will result in ____ the rate of glomerular filtration

a decrease

Respiratory acidosis can be

caused by a decrease in breathing and compensated for by the secretion of more hydrogen ions from the kidneys

The micturition reflex center is located in the

sacral segments of the spinal cord

The acid-base buffer systerms in blood include

all; phosphate, bicarbonate, proteing buffer systems

Compared to males who train for endurance, females

maintain a higher percentage of body fat

Following ovulation, the egg survives for a maximum of

24 hours

If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted,

the glomerular filtration rate decreases

As a consequence of edema, blood volume

decreases and bp drops

Obstruction of the airways leads to

respiratory acidosis

Edema that accompanies nephrotic syndrome results from

a decreasing concentration of plasma proteins

Cystitis occurs more commonly in women then men because

female urethral pathway is shorter

If the testes fail to descend, male is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by

high internal body temp

Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies, leads to

metabolic acidosis

The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the walls of the

DCT and collecting duct

The respiratory center is most likely to cause an increase in the breathing rate if the

pH of body fluids is decreasing

The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the

loop of Henle

The largest H+ ions are secreted

actively into the proximal convoluted tubule

A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of the glomerular capsule will result in ___ the rate of glomerular filtration

a decrease in

The ureter extends downward

behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the UB from below

A person in a moderate environment will lose the most water by means of

urine

Androgens are ___, whereas testosterone is ___

male sex hormones; the most abundant androgen

A renal corpuscle includes the

glomerulus and glomerular capsule

The thirst center is located in the

hypothalamus

Water intoxication is

characterized by an increase osmotic concentration of the extracellular fluid compartment

What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron

It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water

As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

drops and filtration decreases

Of the compartments of the extracellular water, which is the largest?

interstitial fluid

Extracellular fluids are characterized by relatively

high sodium and low potassium concentrations

Osmotic pressure is primarily controlled in the proximal convoluted tubule by

sodium ion concentration

Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold

glucose will appear in the urine

Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by

inhibiting the release of ADH

If glucose is administered intravenously to a ptient with insulin dependent diabetes, the patient will probably develop

glucosuria

In acute glomerulonephritis, the gloerular capillaries tend to become blocked with

antigen-antibody complexes

The renal medulla is composed of ____, whereas the renal cortex is composed of ____

renal pyramids; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules

One of the more common causes of female infertility is failure of ovulation due to hyposecretion of hormones from the

anterior pituitary gland

Which of the following would result in edema?

both low plasma protein concentration and increased venous pressure

Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by

converting strong acids to weak acids

During the act of drinking water, the desire for water is usually inhibited by

distention of the stomach

If the reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubule is inhibited the

all; plasma volume decrease, osmotic pressure of the renal tubular fluid increases, reabsorption of water decreases

Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are

reabsorbed by passive transport

Which of the following is water in adult male?

65%

Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be

conserved and water to be conserved

In females, what structure is located immediately anterior to the vagina?

the urethra

The epididymis is ____ and it functions to ___

tightly coiled tube on the outside of the testes; store sperm as they mature

The hormone commonly used to detect if a woman is pregnant is

HCG

The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for reabsorption by

having microscopic projections called microvilli

In a male, an indirect inguinal hernia occurs when an intestinal loop protrudes into the

vaginal process

Dehydration is

All; caused by excessive sweating, lack of water, etc; osmotic concentration increasing in the extracellular fluid compartment, water leaving the compartment by osmosis

A person who is severly dehydrated is likely to have a high fever because

water is needed for body termperature regulation

The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics is

estrogen

The countercurrent mechanism in the loop of henle is correctly described by what?

water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb

Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by

vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole

The hormones responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the last 5-6 months of pregnancy are

placental estrogen and progesterone

Which is not a function of the kidneys?

formation of plasma proteins

Low K+ concentration (hypokalemia) is characterized by

muscular weakness, respiratory difficulty and ventricular arrythmias

Edema is

characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces

Infants are more likely than adults to become dehydrated because

infant kidneys are less able to conserve water

Excessive secretion of PTH is accompanied by

increased bone reabsorption and increased blood calcium concentration

The composition of glomerular filtrate compares to that of plasma by containing

the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules

Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in correct sequence from beginning to end?

proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of the loop of henle, ascending limb of the loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule

A patient with a sodium imbalance is also likely to have an imbalance of

potassium

Older males typically experience a decrease in sexual functions because the target cell sensitivity to

testosterone decreases

A primary stiumulus for the secretion of aldosterone is

rising potassium concentration

High potassium concentration (hyperkalemia) can be caused by

all; renal disease, drugs that promote renal conservation of potassium, insufficient secretion of aldosterone

Intracellular fluids are characterized by relatively high concentrations of

potassium and phosphate

As body fluids become more alkaline, neurons become more

excitable

Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus and

anterior pituitary gland and testes

About the time of ovulation, the anterior pituitary gland releases a relatively large quantity of

LH

Water intoxication is caused by

hypotonic extracellular fluid

A person with nephrotic syndrome is likely to have

all; widespread edema, increased susceptibility to infections and proteinuria

The blood concentration of calcium may increase with lung cancer because cancer cells

secrete a PTH-like substance

If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body

osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell

The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by ___ of the extracellular fluid, and is inhibited by ___

an increase in osmotic pressure; distension of the stomach by water

Shock-wave lithrotripsy is a procedure for

fragmenting kidney stones

Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within the

joint cavities

As a rule, prostate cancers are stimulated to grow by

testosterone

During pregnancy

none of these

The hormone oxytocin aids the birth process by stimulating

uterine wall contractions

Ascites is a condition in which

fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity

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