Developmental Psychology

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College level developmental psychology final review flash cards. (Chapter 9)

Latisha experienced menarche at the age of 5 years. Latisha has experienced:

precocious puberty *menarche is the first menstruation

When sexual or physical characteristics mature earlier than normal

precocious puberty

The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's:

brain

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

The adolescent who will probably find puberty most difficult is:

Katya, an early maturer

An unintended consequence of high-stakes testing is:

increased high school drop out rates

During middle school, social relationships among students:

deteriorate due to the increased number of students

In the United States, young persons aged 15-24 constitute what percentage of all sexually transmitted infections?

50 percent

When Patty looks in the mirror, she sees an overweight girl. She is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds. She does aerobics for at least two hours daily and eats very little. Patty most likely suffers from:

anorexia nervosa

In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with which of the following?

aggression and antisocial behavior in boys

For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is:

testosterone

Haley will be attending her first year of middle school in the fall. According to research, she will probably witness:

an increase in bullying

The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the:

hypothalamus

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:

her belief in an imaginary audience

Ryan's thinking is no longer restricted to personal experience as it had been earlier in his life. Ryan is in the stage of

formal operational thought

Which of the following is true of all eating disorders?

Food consumption is disconnected from the internal cues of hunger.

According to research conducted in 2005, which of the following students is most likely to be admired during middle school?

Louise, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights

Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:

the uterus and the testes begin to grow.

For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche

Adolescent egocentrism is evident when teenagers believe:

they personally are much more socially significant than they actually are

Which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body fat and the onset of puberty?

There is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty

A thought that arises through a "feeling" that the thought is right is referred to as a(n)

intuitive thought

The growth spurt begins with a(n):

increase in bone length

The dual-process model of thinking is defined by the notion that:

two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli

The ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?

inductive reasoning (may be less cognitively advanced than deduction)

Reasoning from the general to the particular through logical steps to figure out specifics (deduce)

deductive reasoning

Which of the following glands receives signals directly from the hypothalamus?

pituitary

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions, such as, "Why can't I have wine with dinner? You do." or "I don't understand why I'll be able to vote when I'm 18, but I have to wait until I'm 21 to buy alcohol!" This type of thinking is demonstrating Justine's:

hypothetical thinking

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality

hypothetical thought

Process of becoming aware of the world around you through your senses to allow you to perceive your environment and act in response to it

perception *remember this for perceptual thinking

In adolescence, changes in the heart and lungs include

greater lung capacity

In girls, the average age for the breast bud stage is:

10

Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?

the family sharing meals together

A strategy to increase student motivation in high schools is widespread participation in:

after-school athletic teams or clubs.

For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as ______ years or as late as ______ years.

8;14

John noticed that his testes have grown larger. His next growth event will probably be

his pubic hair begins to appear

Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. We can expect their academic achievement to

slow down

Jose enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which of the following will be most beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?

the rapid changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach

Which of the following persons is likely to have the greatest health problems because of iron deficiency?

16-year-old Marilyn, who is menstruating

Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of

deductive reasoning

Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver's license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "Because I know other kids who do it, and it's just stupid that I have to wait another 3 months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?

intuitive

The ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason

intuition

The process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.

reasoning

Thinking based on earlier or otherwise known statements, events, or conditions; reasonable

logical ex.Rain was a logical expectation, given the time of year

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a gut feeling is referred to as:

intuitive thought

Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence:

formal operational thought

Most adolescents think about themselves

frequently

Analytic thinking requires a certain level of:

brain capacity, intellectual maturity, and motivation.

The percentage of adolescents that consumed the recommended five or more servings of fruits or vegetables daily has:

decreased over the past decade

In females, the glands that are sometimes perceived as the sex glands are the

ovaries

Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?

prefrontal cortex

For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.

One of the first signs of the growth spurt is:

growth of hands and feet.

The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of

creating a developmental mismatch

Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been staying awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should:

realize that this is due to hormonal shifts

Girls who become pregnant before the age of 15 are more likely to experience:

high blood pressure and spontaneous abortion.

Research has suggested that two distinct pathways for thinking exist in the brain: one processes emotional thought while the other processes analytic thought. These two pathways comprise the:

dual-process model.

Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that

are not directly related to reproduction.

A thought that arises through a "feeling" that the thought is right is referred to as a(n):

intuitive thought

One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:

think in terms of possibilities

Does the ability of schoolchildren to use deductive reasoning tend to develop at the same time as their ability to use inductive reasoning?

No, deductive reasoning tends to develop later than inductive reasoning.

Which two of the following nutrients are likely to be deficient in the adolescent diet?

iron and calcium

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than other peoples'. This is part of their:

personal fable

Some teenagers seem able to skate, play basketball, or dance for hours without rest. This increased endurance is best explained by

the growth of the heart and lungs

Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience:

teasing and name-calling from her classmates

Which of the following adolescents will be most likely to experience menarche first:
A. Cecilia, who is of Mexican descent
B. Michelle, who is of German descent
C. Maria, who is of Asian descent
D. Rebecca, who is of African descent

D. Rebecca, who is of African descent

What effect does malnutrition have on puberty?

It tends to delay the onset of puberty

In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to which of the following?

the view that one is noticed by everyone

The sequence of hormone production that originates in the brain and ends with glands located atop the kidneys is known as the:

HPA axis

Over the last two centuries, children have tended to reach their adult height earlier and are taller than their ancestors. What is the name for this type of phenomenon?

secular trend

In girls, the onset of puberty brings the lowering of the voice at approximately age

14

The still-developing prefrontal cortex and the full development of the limbic system are at least partially responsible for:

the passion and commitment with which adolescents and young adults embrace nontraditional ideas.

Paul assumes that his adolescent son shares his values of hard work and financial frugality. Yet his son drifts from job to job, spending all the money he earns. In his assumptions, Paul is demonstrating:

egocentrism.

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the

spermarche

About ______ of the variation in age of puberty is determined by genes

two-thirds

Child sexual abuse is most common in children ages

12-15

For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs

following growth of the testes and penis

Which of the following has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening?

culture and social context

Depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and ADHD may result from

abnormalities in the HPA axis

Most researchers believe which of the following statements to be true regarding the dual-process model?

There are at least two different pathways in the brain involved in thinking.

Which of the following is a reason why adolescents, and sometimes adults, rely more on intuition than on analytical thinking?

Thinking logically takes more effort than relying on intuition.

The growth spurt typically occurs during puberty in the following order

weight, height, muscle

What-if propositions require:

hypothetical thought

The dual-process model of adolescent thought suggests that two distinct pathways exist in the brain to process thought. One pathway processes analytic thought. The other pathway processes

intuitive thought

Klaczynski's studies of younger and older adolescents' analytical thinking indicated that:

most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilities would allow

The term gonads refers to

testes in boys and ovaries in girls

What is the name of the hormone which is high at the onset of puberty and affects appetite, especially in girls?

leptin

Large high schools are economical, and they

do not increase student learning

Family conflict and stress

may cause the early onset of puberty

Whether adolescents stay in school or drop out is strongly influenced by their:

experience in middle school

If high schools want to decrease the incidence of violence, they should

set clear standards of student behavior

A characteristic of adolescent egocentrism is

the belief that one's emotional experiences are misunderstood by others

A change that typically occurs during adolescence is

the heart doubles in size and beats more slowly

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines

hypothetical thought

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably:

put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale

During the last several years the digital divide has become largest between

adolescents and older adults

The term imaginary audience refers to adolescents'

false belief that everyone is constantly attending to their behavior and appearance

A 14-year-old boy has disproportionately large feet and hands and a big nose. He most likely:

is near the beginning of his growth spurt

In Inhelder and Piaget's balance experiment, a child who systematically tests the idea that the relationship between weight and distance is reciprocal is probably age:

14

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