Misnomer created by Columbus referring to the indigenous people of the New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among the Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans
Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 C.E.; declined after 1200 C.E.
Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs in 10th century; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power; went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula
Founded c. 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texcoco;became part of the Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texcoco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoamerica
one of the major Aztec gods associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle as the god of rain
Aztec tribal patron with God; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; idenified told sun god
Leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs
Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long- distance trade in luxury items
Clans in Aztec society, later explanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
Word from Incan Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
Inca practice of descent, all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendents for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the inca or the Inca nobility.
System of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records