King Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England; he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce launching the English Protestant Reformation.
Received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to explore the American coastline. His ships landed on Roanoke in 1585, which became a "lost colony."
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596).
An English explorer who promoted the failed attempt to colonize Newfoundland for England. He was the half-brother of Walter Raleigh.
King of Spain. Used part of his imperial gains to build an "Invincible Armada" of ships for an invasion of England. When they finally did attack, they were defeated.
Sent a charter to the Virginia Company of London for a settlement in the New World
Leader of the Jamestown colonists. He whipped the gold hungry colonists into line with the rule "He who shall not work shall not eat." He was kidnapped, but saved by the Indian Chieftain Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas.
Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia. He kidnapped Captain John Smith and subject him to a mock execution that was interrupted by his daughter
Daughter of the Indian Chieftain, Powhatan. She saved John Smith from execution by putting her head between John's and the war clubs of his captors. She became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers.
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown. He married Pocahontas, ended the first Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614.. He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
After King Charles I was beheaded, puritan-soldier ______ was made king and ruled for nearly a decade
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism. Caroline was named after him
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that ________ was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and ________ to lose his position as governor.
Aclergyman and missionary who returned to England and founded Methodism (1703-1791)
An Iroquois prophet. Angels appeared to him in a vision and told him to mend his ways. He preached to affirm family values, revive old customs, and forsake alcohol
accompanied Captain John Smith on his expedition to Virginia; served as deputy-governor in 1609-1610; returned to England in 1612 and wrote A Discourse of the Plantation of Virginia about his experience
An English writer who was a proponent of colonizing the New World
Ascended to the throne in 1558. In the 1570s and 1580s, _______'s troops crushed the Irish uprising with terrible ferocity. Irish land was confiscated and Protestant landlords were "planted".
Georgia was named after him
Deganawidah and Hiawatha
two leaders who founded the Iroquois Confederacy in the late 1500s
A country who's population share a common identity.
A business entity which is owned by shareholders
A system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work
The process of inclosing land formally subject to common rights, One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
House of Burgesses
The first assembly of elected representatives of English colonist in North America. It was established by the Virginia company to make conditions in the colony more agreeable for its current inhabitants. The first meeting was helf in Jamestown, Virginia, on July 30, 1619.
A formal document issued by a monarch granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
Laws in each US state which gave slave-owners absolute power over the African Slaves
A freeman owning his own farm...
The owner of a business or a holder of property
A long wooden building in which several related Iroquois families lived together.
A person who lived on land that does not belong to him
Law Of Primogeniture
Common law that established the birthright of the oldest son to inherit the family estate.
Practice of contracting to work for a fixed period of time, typically three to seven years, in exchange for transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities during the indenture.
in Jamestown, a period of starvation during the winter of 1609-1610 in which all but 60 of the 500 colonists died.
English adventurers or pirates at the time of Elizabethan era. Mainly engaged in attacks on Spanish shipping and slave trade.
The number of people that could have moved from England during that time, without damaging the economy.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
(1610-1614) When the English arrided in Virgina, they struggled to survive. Unable to provide for themselves, they pressed the Indians for supplies. Chieftain Powhatan ordered a siege on the English fort. De La Warr arrived with reinforcements and, using "Irish tactics" defeated the Indians. The war ended with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Indians last effort to dislodge Virginians, they were defeated. Peace treaty of 1646 stopped any hope of creating native peoples into Virginia society or peace with coexisting.
Maryland Act of Toleration
Policy created in Maryland in 1649 offering religious freedom to all Christians
Barbados Slave Code
"Codes" that defined the slaves legal status and masters prerogatives. This gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
After a period of bloody unrest, Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660 and empire building resumed.
Act of Toleration
Act of British Parliament that granted freedom of worship to Nonconformist. This did not apply to Cathloics and Unitarians.
They helped the Carolina settles foray into the interior in search of captives.
A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondoga, and Oneida
The Catholic Irish sought help from Catholic Spain to throw the yoke of the New Protestant English queen. Spanish did not really help and England crushed the Irish uprising. The English crown confiscated Catholic Irish lands and "planted" them with new Protestant landlords
A powerful outpost settled by the Spanish in 1610.
A powerful output settled by the French in 1608
A powerful outpost settled by the English in 1607
The busiest seaport in the south. The city became a diverse community to which French Protestant refugees and others were attracted by religious toleration
House of Burgesses
1619 - The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, This was the first of many miniature parliaments
A reformation of the Church of England initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants.
Catholics battled Protestants for decades and the balance of power shifted. After the Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the English throne in 1558, Protestantism became dominate in England
Philip II of Spain used part of his imperial gains to amass an "Invincible Armada" for an invasion of England. He attacked in 1588 but was defeated by the English seadogs.
The chieftain Powhatan dominated the native peoples and asserted supremacy over the few dozen small
tribes, loosely affiliated in what came to be called ______
Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements
English Civil War
This was a war in England in the 1640's. This war was fought between the forces of the King (Cavaliers) and the forces of Parliament (Roundheads- Puritans). The forces of Parliament won, executed the king, and established the idea that Parliament was superior to king in England.
Fervent belief and loyalty given to the political unit of the nation-state
Originally, religious freedom granted by an established church to a religious minority