# Unit 2 Population and migration

## 57 terms · Migration and population

### age distribution

(Population pyramid) is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups. This is important because you can tell from the age distribution important characteristic of a country, whether high guest worker population, they just had a war or a deadly disease and more.

### carrying capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

### cohort

a group people having approximately the same age

### demographic equation

The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.

### demographic momentum

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.

### demographic regions

Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in. Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition

### Demographic transition model

A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

### dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

### diffusion of fertility control

Population growth had declined in the developed countries through education programs, family planning programs coupled with AIDS prevention programs.

### disease diffusion

two types: hierarchical, contagious ; determines how the disease spread so you can predict how it will spread.

### doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size, assuming a constant nir

### ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

### epidemiological transition model

This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more.

### gendered space

areas or regions designed for men or women

### infant mortality rate

the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births

### J curve

a growth curve that depicts exponential growth; shaped like a "J"

an adaptation that does more harm than good

### thomas malthus

English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies

### mortality

death, the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area

### natality

the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area

### neomalthusian

theory building upon malthus'. it takes into account population growth in LDC and outstripping of resources

### overpopulation

The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.

### population densities

The frequency with which something occurs in space.

### population distributions

the arrangement of people in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern (Used to describe how things and people are distributed)

### population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

### population projection

Predicts the future population of an area or the world.Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity

### population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

### NIR

the percentage growth of a population in a year computed as cbr - cdr

### S curve

a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an "S"

### sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

### standard of living

measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy.

### sustainability

providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future

### underpopulation

it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population

### zero population growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

### activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

### chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

### cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

### distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### forced migration

the forced or free movement of large groups of people or individuals from their homelands to new areas

### gravity model

A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.

### internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

### intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### intercontinental migration

Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.

### interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### rural urban migration

from a farm to a city

### migratory movement

movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another

### periodic movement

motion that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each recurrence remains the same

### personal space

the area which a person considers their domain or territory

### place utility

having a product where customers can buy it

### push factors

a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region

### pull factors

opportunities for a better life that encourage you to move

### refugee

a person residing outside his country due to fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership of a social group.

### space-time prism

set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.

### step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### transhumance

The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.

### transmigration

movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another

### voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.