The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues

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The lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic tissue, lymph nodes, ________.

spleen, and thymus

The right lymphatic duct drains ________.

the right side of the head and thorax, and the right upper extremity

Select the mechanism below that is not involved in the flow of lymph through the lymphatic vessels.

milking action of skeletal muscles;
PUMPING ACTION OF THE HEART;
pressure changes in the thorax that occur during breathing

Antigens that can provoke an immune response include ________.

foreign proteins, polysaccharides, and small molecules, called haptens, that link to our own body proteins

These cells recognize antigens and initiate the immune response.

lymphocytes

B cells provide this kind of immunity.

Humoral

Germinal centers in the cortex of lymph nodes contain primarily ________.

B cells

The ________ pulp is responsible for the immune functions of the spleen.

white

In the tonsils, these structures trap bacteria and other foreign material.

crypts

What is not true about antibodies?

They are found in plasma and other body secretions;
THEY ARE CELLS;
They bind to a single, specific antigen;
They are produced by plasma cells

Lymph vessels resemble these vessels of the systemic circulation.

Veins

Although all of the organs below can raise an immune response, only this one filters the lymph.

LYMPH NODES;
spleen;
tonsils

Lymph in the cisterna chyli differs in composition from lymph in the general lymphatic stream in that it contains more ________.

fat

The function of B cells in the immune response is ________.

to produce plasma cells that make antibodies

The property of immunological memory is ________.

the ability to recognize and mount an attack on an antigen that was previously encountered

What causes the flow of lymph to slow within lymph nodes?

There are more afferent vessels than efferent vessels.

Antibodies ________.

are proteins composed of heavy chains and light chains

If you were to draw an antibody, how might you sketch out its basic shape?

As a "Y"

In the Ouchterlony test, where will a precipitate form when bovine serum albumin is mixed with the antibodies for horse albumin, bovine albumin, and swine albumin?

between the wells for bovine albumin and antibodies for bovine albumin

If an unknown antigen contains only swine serum albumin, how many precipitates will form between it and the wells of antibodies for horse, bovine, and swine albumin?

1

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

T OR F: The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

TRUE

T OR F: Lymph always flows away from the heart.

FALSE

T OR F: Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

T OR F: Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.

TRUE

T OR F: Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

TRUE

T OR F: About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.

TRUE

T OR F: Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

T OR F: When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

TRUE

T OR F: The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.

skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

more permeable than blood capillaries

When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

severe localized edema distal to the blockage

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?

bone marrow;
bones and teeth;
cns;
DIGESTIVE ORGANS

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

inguinal region;
axillary region;
LOWER EXTREMITIES;
cervical region

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION;
valves in lymph vessel walls;
skeletal muscle contraction;
breathing

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

water;
RED BLOOD CELLS;
ions;
plasma proteins

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

transporting dietary fats;
TRANSPORTING RESPIRATORY GASES;
draining excess interstitial fluid;
carrying out immune responses

Highly specialized lymph capillaries called ________ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.

lacteals

The thoracic duct of the lymphatic system empties into the ________.

left subclavian vein

Lymphatic ________ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels.

trunks

Lymph is most similar to:

interstitial fluid

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with:

capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.

Once collected, lymph is returned to:

venous circulation

Lymphatic vessels:

return tissue fluid to the bloodstream.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

lymph nodes;
lymphatic vessels;
BLOOD VESSELS;
lymph

What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

increase permeability

A woman had a mastectomy that included the removal of axillary lymph nodes on her left side. What can she expect regarding her left arm, and why?

She can expect severe localized edema along the arm, although some lymphatic drainage is eventually reestablished by regrowth of the vessels.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

T OR F: Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.

TRUE

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

plasma cells

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Antibodies are produced by _______.

plasma cells

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does not contain reticular connective tissue?

Lymph nodes;
Tonsils;
THYMUS;
Spleen

Which of the following are considered the primary immune system cells?

Lymphocytes

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

macrophage;
reticular cell;
EOSINOPHIL;
dendritic cell

T OR F: Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

T OR F: An infected lymph gland is called a bubo.

TRUE

T OR F: The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

lymph nodes

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

efferent lymphatic vessels

What is a bubo?

an infected lymph node

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes; furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

serve as antigen surveillance areas;
produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs;
PRODUCE LYMPH FLUID AND CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID;
act as lymph filters and activate the immune system

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

They filter lymph.

Which of the following is not a lymphoid tissue/organ?

Tonsils;
BONE MARROW;
Peyer's patches;
Spleen

The ________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

palatine tonsils

What is/are the principal lymphoid organ(s) in the body?

lymph nodes

A mother takes her son to the doctor and describes the following symptoms that she has observed. The child is running a fever, has flu-like symptoms, and his lymph glands are very swollen and sore to the touch. Of what significance are the swollen and sore lymph glands?

It indicates that the lymph nodes are infected by microorganisms.

A nurse palpated enlarged lymph nodes. What are the signs and symptoms that help to distinguish cancerous lymph nodes from infected lymph nodes?

Tender nodes are usually due to inflammation, whereas hard, fixed nodes are suggestive of malignancy.

Why is the prognosis of cancer best when there is no detectable spread from the region of the primary tumor to the lymph nodes?

Cancer cells that break free from the primary tumor can metastasize via the lymph system. Non-metastasized cancer is easier to treat.

As infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progresses, some individuals develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Why might this occur?

The lymph nodes are overwhelmed by a large number of virus particles trapped in the nodes.

T OR F: Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.

FALSE

T OR F: If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

TRUE

T OR F: All lymphatic organs are composed of epithelial tissue.

FALSE

T OR F: The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

PANCREAS;
Peyer's patches of the intestine;
tonsils;
spleen

The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.

peyer's patches

The thymus is most active during ________.

childhood

What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?

The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

lymphocytes

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood;
FORMING CRYPTS THAT TRAP BACTERIA;
storage of iron;
storage of blood platelets

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

tonsil

Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

THYMUS;
tonsil;
appendix;
Peyer's patch

Peyer's patches are found in the ________.

Ileum of the small intestine

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

produce hormones;
have lymphocytes;
have a cortex and medulla;
DIRECTLY FIGHT ANTIGENS

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

Peyer's patches;
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS;
lingual tonsils;
palatine tonsils

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

lingual tonsils

The ________ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx.

tonsils

The appendix, tonsils, and Peyer's patches are examples of ________.

MALT

Tonsils have blind-ended structures called ________.

crypts

Hassall's corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored ________ regions of the thymus.

medullary

The ________ pulp of the spleen forms cuffs around the central arteries.

white

Peyer's patches are located:

along the small intestine

The first lymphoid organ to appear in development is (are) the:

thymus

T OR F: Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.

FALSE

Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

Spleen

Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

thymus gland

Which of the following is/are the simplest lymphoid organ(s)?

tonsils

Which of the following is NOT a part of the MALT?

appendix;
tonsils;
Peyer's patches;
LYMPH NODES

Where are Peyer's patches located?

distal portion of the small intestine

A 46 year-old man involved in a traffic accident is rushed to the emergency room with internal bleeding. Examination reveals a ruptured spleen. As a doctor, which of the following statements are important factors for you to consider as you decide whether or not to remove the patient's spleen?

The patient could regenerate an entirely new spleen;
The adrenals can take over some of the spleen's functions;
The function of the spleen is not well understood;
IF LEFT ALONE, THE SPLEEN CAN OFTEN REPAIR ITSELF;
BONE MARROW CAN TAKE OVER SOME OF THE SPLEEN'S FUNCTIONS;
The patient cannot live without a spleen;
THE LIVER CAN TAKE OVER SOME OF THE SPLEEN'S FUNCTIONS

T OR F: All lymphoid organs develop from mesoderm.

FALSE

T OR F: All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.

FALSE

A sentinel node is ________.

the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

T OR F: The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.

TRUE

Lymphatic vessels:

collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces.

Lymphatic capillaries owe their permeability to the presence of:

minivalves in their walls.

Why would removal of lymph vessels from the right adillary region cause edema in the right arm?

Excess blood plasma builds up in regions where there are no lymph vessels.

WHich of the following represents a logical sequence of structures that contribute to the return of fluid into the blood via the lymphatic system?

Arteries, blood capillaries, lymphatic vessels, subclavian vein

Which of the following contribute(s) to the flow of lymph through lymphatic vessels?

The pumping of the heart; Pressure changes in the thorax that result from breathing

Which of the following would the body perceive as an antigen?

Bacteria, Virus, and Mismatched red blood cells

An advantage to having reticular connective tissue present in lymph nodes would be that:

The loose organization of reticular connective tissue provides niches for macrophages and lymphocytes;
lymph filters through the nodes and is exposed to lymphocytes and macrophages;
lymphocytes cycle to various areas of the body and back to lymph nodes

The highest density of lymph nodes can be found _____.

at the locations where lymphatic collecting vessels converge

Lymph tends to stall inside lymph nodes. This is due to:

fewer efferent lymphatic vessels than afferent lymphatic vessels

_____ can enter lymph capillaries.

Bacteria, large proteins, and interstitial fluid

The _____ is the largest lymphoid organ.

spleen

Red pulp of the spleen is most concerned with ______, while white pulp is most concerned with _____.

blood filtering; immunity

Which of the following lymphoid tissues removes defective red blood cells from the blood?

spleen

The thymus is important for:

T lymphocyte maturation.

Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by:

trapping pathogens to develop immune cells with memory.

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