Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Must Be True

Correct: paraphrased or combined answers from information in the stimulus

Weaken

Correct: incomplete information/inconsiderate of possibilities, improper comparison, qualified/limited conclusion, attack necessary condition (CR)

TIPS: strong pre-phrasing,

Parallel

Approach: ignore order and topic, focus on: method of reasoning (causation/CR), validity (true/false), conclusion* (certainty and scope)

Strengthen

Correct: eliminates alternate causes, strengthens the cause-effect or lack of, eliminates reverse, strengthens supporting data

TIPS: pre-phrase (identify weaknesses and fill gaps), 1-100% strengthen

Sufficient Assumption (Justify)

Correct: Premises + ANSWER = Conclusion, new conclusion elements or premise elements not present in conclusion

Incorrect: elements common to conclusion and premises

TIPS: contain 'if', 'enables/allows conclusion to be properly drawn', 100% strengthen, usually conditional/percentages, use diagrams, focus on VERB to distinguish from NA (Assumption)

Necessary Assumption (Assumption)

Correct: supporter (connects new or rogue elements - like Justify/Sufficient Assumption) or defender (eliminates weaknesses), MBT if conclusion is true


TIPS: assumption or presupposition, NO 'if', logically negate contenders > correct answer attacks argument, focus on VERB to distinguish from SA (Justify)

Paradox

TIPS: strong pre-phrase,

LR Strategy

1. Identify conclusion (bracket with 'C')
2. Strong or weak argument, scope and quantities
3. Identify question type
4. Pre-phrase answer
5. Divide into Contenders and Losers
6. Return to stimulus if stuck

Main Point

Correct: conclusion AND summary

Incorrect: true but not summary

Method of Reasoning

Incorrect: exaggerated, new elements/non-occurring elements, half right half wrong, reverse answer

Sufficient Condition

- Before arrow
-All, any, every, if, in order to, the only, to be, when, whenever
- ACTIVATES NC or SUFFICIENT for NC to have occurred

Necessary Condition

- After arrow
- Depends upon, must, only, only if, only when, requires, then, until
- ACTIVATED by SC or NECESSARY for SC to have occurred

RC Strategy

Approach: V1 and V2 + reduced core word for viewpoints, E1 and E2 for evidence and A1 and A2 for advocates.

TIPS: get interested, examine relationship of E and C in each paragraph, note degrees of certainty, focus on flow/structure/intent

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set