Final exam review : Anatomy & Physiology II

115 terms by gdamato35 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Male and female reproductive system, Human development and aging

The presence of the Y chromosome

Does not guarantee the development of male secondary sex organs

Only germ cells undergo meiosis

which produces four haploid cells with 23 chromosomes each

The ovarian cycle

Typically lasts 28 days, with day 14 considered to be the first day after ovulation

Lutenizing hormone

stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete testosterone

The formation order of ejaculation

seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra

In Meiosis, each parent cell in the male reproductive system produces

four haploid cells

The term menstrual cycle specifically refers to

the cyclic changes in the uterus determined by shifting hormonal changes

Most ovulation home test kits measure

LH surge, which happens about 24 hours before ovulation

During the follicular phase , granulosa cells secrete

estradiol which stimulates secretion of LH

Inhibin

suppresses spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone secretion

After puberty the vaginal lining becomes

stratifed squamous epithelium, to resist abrasion

Why is breast milk superior to cow's milk for an infant?

Cow's milk has too much protein and minerals in it.

The basis for contraceptive pills is ?

They mimic the negative feedback effect of estrogens and progesterone

The basis of pregancy tests kits is the presence of

human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG) which is secreted by the blastocyst and placenta

What determines whether an organism will be genetically male or female?

The sperm

What stimulates the descent of the testes

testosterone

When the number of ovarian follicles decline with age, what happens?

it reduces estrogen levels

Sexual reproduction entails

the union of an egg and sperm to form a zygote

Your lecture instructors name is

Danielle Dusold

The heat los of the neonate is compensated how?

to some extent by the thermal insulation provided by brown fat

This is a true statement

Life expectancy has steadily increased in the last century whereas life span has not.

This statement is false

Cleavage results in daughter cells containing half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

Endocrine

the body system that degenerates less than any other organ system

Embryo

individual 16 days old when it consists of three primary germ layers

The skeleton and muscle develop from which primary germ layer?

mesoderm

Neonatal period

the first 6 weeks of life

Ectopic pregnancy

when the blastocyst implants somwhere other than the uterus

Placenta

the fetus's life support system; disc of tissue attached to the uterine wall on one side and on the other attached to the fetus by way of the umbillical cord.

Apgar score

neonatal assessment of newborns; good predictor of infant survival

Embryogenesis

the arrangement of blastomeres into the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

Aging

All changes that occure in the body with the passage of time; growth, development increasing funtional efficeiency and the degerative changes that occur later in life

The study of prenatal development

embryology

Implantation

the process of attachment and embedding of the blastocyst into the endometrium of the uterine wall, begins 6 days after ovulation

Progeria

the genetic defect characterized by greatly acceleraqted senescence.

Ectoderm

The primary germ layer where the epidermis and nervous system develop

Foremen ovale

a hole in the interatrial septum that allows some fetal blood to bypass the lungs; usually closes at birth

Photoaging

degerative changes in proportion to a persons lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation

Fetus

name of the developing individual at the end of 8 weeks, all of the organ systems are present.

Brain death

the lack of cerebral activity indicated by a flat EEG for 30 minutes to 24 hours.

Lifespan

the maximum age attainable by humans

Neural Tube

the portion of the ectoderm that will develop into the nervous system.

Amnion

The transparent fetal membrane filled with fluid that surrounds and protects the developing embryo and fetus

Ostopenia

the loss of bone

Uterine Milk

a glycogen-rich secretion of the uterine tubes and endometrial glands; conceptus absorbs this fluid as it travels down the tube and lies free in the uterine cavity before implantation

Senescence

the degeneration that occures in an organ system after the age of peak functional efficiency

Monozygotic Twins

produced when a single egg is fertilized and the cell mass later divides into two which develop independantly, also known as identical twins

Downsyndrome is

trisomy-21 the most survivable trisomy

Zygote

the single fertilized egg formed after the union of the two pronuclei

Teratogens

agents that cause anatomical deformalites in the fetus; drugs, infectious disease, and radiation are a few

Somites

blocks of mesoderm in the embryo that will give rise to the vertebral column, truck nuscles and the dermis of the skin

The first trimester of pregnancy

more than half of the embryos die; most vunerable time to stress, drugs and nutritional deficiencies

Primipara

a woman giving birth for the first time

HCg

secreted by the blastocyst and placenta; its presence in urine can be detected 8-9 days following conception,

Vertex

a normal head-down position of the fetus from the seventh month until birth

Menses

begins when the mentrual fluid is being discharged from the vagina

Graafian

the usually one folicle per month that matures to the point of ovulation

Vulva

the collective name for the female external genitalia; pudendum

Clitoris

structured like the penis in some respects; only sensory function, the primary center of sexual stimulation

Myometrium

the layer of the uterine wall responsible for labor contractions

Ovaries

the female gonads that produce egg cells and sex hormones.

Sexual cycle

encompasses the events that recur every month when pregancy does not occur

Thelarche

the onset of breast development the earliest noticeable sign of puberty

Paramesonephric

ducts that develop into the female reproductive tract due to the absence of teststerone and MIF

Stratum basalis

the permenant layer of the endometrium

Male climacteric andropause

the period of declining repreductive function that becomes noticeable , typically in the early 50's

Haploid

a cell with 23 unpaired chromosomes, sperm and egg

Ductus deferens

muscular tube that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body during ejaculation; passes upward through spermatic cord

Excitement

the first phase of human sexual response characterized by vasocongestion, myotonia and increased metabolism

Chyptorchidism

a condition in which boys are born with undescended testes

Cremaster system

in male serves to produce sperm and introduce them into the female body; in female produces eggs recieves the sperm and provides for the union of the gamtes.

Refractory period

the period after resolution inwhich it is usually impossible to attain another erection and orgasm.

Genital herpes

most common STD in the united states

Mutations

changes in the DNA structure

Major stages of prenatal development

first trimester- fertilization to 12 weeks
second trimester- 13 to 24 weeks
third trimester- week 25 to birth

Preembryonic stage

first 16 days of development involves three major processes: cleavage, implantation and embryogenesis

Transitional period

the period immediately following birht is a crisis in wich the neonate suddenly must adapt to life outside the mothers body

The first 6 to 8 hours of life

increase in heart and respiratory rate, body temperature drops, physcial activity declines initially then baby often gags on mucus and debris in thier pharynx then stabilizes

Respiratory adaptations of newborn

great effort to inflate lungs for the first few breaths and inflate collapse alveoli, first 2 weeks 45 breaths per minute after which it stabilizes

Tertatology

the study of birth defects

Nondisjunction of autosomes

only three autosomal trisomies are survivable they involve chromosomes 13, 18 and 21: patau syndrome ( trisomy-13), Edward syndrome ( trisomy-18) and downsyndrome (trisomy 21)

Turner syndrome (XO)

egg recieving no X chromosomesbut fertilzed by X carrying sperm. 90 % die at birth

Characteristics of turner syndrome

webbed necks, widely spaced nipples, and secondary sexual characteristics,failure to develop at puberty, sterile

Triplo X syndrome (XXX)

egg recieving 2 X crhomosomes fertilized by X carrying sperm

Klinefelter syndrome ( XXY)

egg recieving 2 X crhomosomes fertilized by Y carrying sperm

Senescence of the Skeletal system

osteopenia that can lead into osteoporosis

Senescense of the Joints

joint disease: less synovial fluid, articular cartilage thinner or absent, breathing difficulties, degeneragion of intervertebral discs

Senescense of the Muscular system

muscular atrophy due to fewer myofribrils, smaller mitochondria, less enzymes, less glycogen, less myoglobin, fewer motor neurons and less efficient sympathetic nervous system

Senescens of the Nervous system

cerebral and neuronal atrophy, degeneration of myelin, plaques can appear on brain, cannot regulate body temperature as well.

Good nutrition and exercise

two good ways to slow down the aging process

What does resistance exercise help with?

it reduces bone fractures in elderly

What does endurance exercise help with?

it reduces body fat, and increases cardiac output and oxygen uptake in elderly

How long should an elderly person exercise to maintain good health?

three to five 20 to 60 minute periods of exercise per week will raise heart rate by 60 to 90 percent

Evolution and senescence

a theory once thought death occurred for the good of the species, to keep available resources for young and healthy.

Natural Selection works through the effects of genes on reproductive rates in which way?

genes that do not affect reproductive rates will neither be favored nor eliminated. aging genes remain with us today.

life expectancy

an average length of life in a given population. an average boy can expect to live 75 years, an average girl can expect to live 81 years.

Death usually occurs as:

a failure of a particular organ followed by a cascade of other organ failures.

When a conceptus arrives in the uterus it is at this stage of development

morula

The acrosomal reaction

The entry of a sperm nucleus into an egg must be preceded by this.

The stage of conceptus that implants in the uterine wall

Blastocysts

Chorionic villi develop from ?

The syncytriotrophoblast

Which disease is a result of aneuploidy?

Turner Syndrome

Fetal urine is accumulated and contributed from what area of the uterus?

The Amnion

Free radicals

A theory of sensecence that results from a life time of damage.

Photoaging is a major factor in the senescence of what system?

Integumentary

What is not a common affect of senescence?

Increased herniation of the intervertbral disks

For the first 8 weeks of life, a conceptus is nourished mainly by this

Decidual cells

Fetal blood flows throught growths called what ?

Choionic villi which project into the placental sinus

The enzymes with which a sperm penetrates an egg are contained in ?

An organelle called the Acrosome

Collegen molecules

can result in a cross linking which is a cause of stiffening of the arteries, joints and lenses in old age.

A developing individual is classified as an embryo when?

The three primary germ layers have formed.

Down syndrome (trisomy 21 results from?

nondisjunction

Senescence of the immune system makes older people more subject to cancer and infectious disease because a decline in what?

antigen presenting cells and helper T cells

Longest stage of labor is

Dialation

During birht an infant is normally stimulated to breath by

Surfacant

What is the purpose of the blood testies barrier?

So immune system does not attack spermatogonium from being killed off

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set