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K-6

semantic

"prior knowledge, meaning"

syntactical cueing system

"structure, ""does that sound correct?"""

graphophenomic cueing

"visual clues, relationship between sounds and symbols"

cloze test

fill in words deliberately omitted

antectdotal notes

observations while students work

techniques to enhance Oral Language Development

"cloze, open disucssions, read alouds, echo reading, storytelling, etc."

phonological awareness

ablity to identify and manipulate large parts of spoke language (like rhyming and alliteration)

alphabet knowlege

identify and name all upper and lower case letters

concept of print

"understand print contains meaning, directionality, concept of a word, letter knowlege, phoenomic awareness, literacy language (author, title, etc)"

revision

clarifying content

editing

grammar and misspellings

literature circles

book clubs

oral language development

verbal skills

components of fluency

"accuracy, automaticity, rate, prosody"

phonemic awareness

ability to hear and manipulate the sounds of spoken language

phonics

understanding of relationships between written letters of the alphabet and sounds of spoken language

fluency

"ability to read quickly, accurately, and properly"

word recognition phases

"pre-alphabetic, partial-alphabetic, full-alphabetic, graphophoenemic, and morphemic"

calculate words per minute

words * 60/seconds

calculate words correct per minute

words-errors * 60/seconds

PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

"LEARNING TO ASSOCIATE 44 ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS WITH THEIR SYMBOLS, I.E. LETTER COMBINATIONS"

PHONICS

"EMPHASIZES RELATIONS BETWEEN PHONEMES AND GRAPHEMES, MOST COMMON TEACHING METHOD UNTIL 1930; ESSENTIAL SKILL FOR BEGINNING READING"

WILLIAMS HOLMES MCGUFFEY

EARLY PHONICS PROPONENT; WROTE READING BOOKS IN 1836 COMBINING PHONICS AND MORALS

RUDOLF FLESCH

"20TH CENTURY PHONICS PROPONENT; WROTE ""WHY JOHNNY CAN'T READ"" 1955"

PHONICS ADVANTAGES

"1) DECODING TOOL, 2) EFFECTIVE FOR AUDITORY LEARNERS, 3) CREATES GOOD SPELLERS"

PHONICS DISADVANTAGES

"1) INEFFECTIVE FOR VISUAL LEARNERS, 2) INCONSISTENT ""RULES"", 3) FREQUENT EXCEPTIONS"

ANALYTIC PHONICS

PHONICS USED IN CONTEXT WITH ACTUAL MATERIALS; BEST PHONICS APPROACH

SYNTHETIC PHONICS

LEARNING PHONICS AS ISOLATED RULES; LEAST EFFECTIVE PHONICS APPROACH

STRUCTUAL ANALYSIS

"BREAKING A WORD INTO ITS PARTS/SYLLABLES; EXAMPLE SEPARATING THE PREFIX AND/OR SUFFIX FORM THE ROOTWORD, SEPARATING COMPOUND WORDS, VOWEL-CONSONANT ANALYSIS"

CONTROLLED VOCABULARY

LIMITING THE NEW WORDS A CHILD MEETS AT A GIVEN TIME

CONTEXT CLUES

"IMAGES, PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, TEACHER PROMPTS (1ST SOUND OF A WORD, ETC.)"

TYPES OF LANGUAGE CUES

"SYNTACTIC CUES, SEMANTIC CUES, PHONEMES AND GRAPHMES"

SYNTACTIC CUES

"SYNTEX - STRUCTURE; GRAMMAR, WORD ORDER, WORD ENDINGS, WORD FUNCTION"

SEMANTIC CUES

WORD MEANING

PHONEMES AND GRAPHEMES

SOUNDS & SYMBOLS (PHONICS)

SCAFFOLDING

"SUPPORTING CHILDREN OF ALL AGES, INVOLVES DEMONSTRATING, GUIDING AND TEACHING"

5 STAGES OF SCAFFOLDING

"MODELING, SHARING, INTERACTING, GUIDNG, ALLOWING INDEPENDENCE"

3 READING STAGES

"PER MATHA COMBS (2006): EMERGENT, DEVELOPING, TRANSITIONAL"

EMERGENT READING STAGE

TRANSITION FROM SPEAKING TO READING AND WRITING

DEVELOPMING READING STAGE

"MIDDLE-1ST TO LATE-2ND GRADE; MORE INDEPENDENT, TEXT SHOULD HAVE MANY DECODABLE WORDS"

TRANSITIONAL READING STAGE

"2ND GRADE AND BEYOND, STILL USING SOME INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS"

READING STRATEGIES

"ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE, PREDICTING/ASKING QUESTIONS, VISUALIZING, DRAWING INFERENCES, DETERMINING IMPORTANT IDEAS, SYTHESIZING INFO, REPAIRING UNDERSTANDING, CONFIMRING, USING PARTS OF BOOK, REFLECTING"

R.S 1 - PRIOR KNOWLEDGE

MAKING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN TEXT & READER'S WORLD

R.S. 2 - PREDICTING/QUESTIONING

KEEPS READERS ENGAGED

R.S. 3 - VISUALIZING

CREATING MENTAL PICTURES

R.S. 4 - INFERENCES

GATHER CLUES FROM TEXT & THINK AHEAD

R.S. 5 - DETERMINING IMP. IDEAS

DISCERNING MAIN IDEAS VERSUS MINOR IDEAS IN TEXT

R.S. 6 - SYNTHESIZING INFO

COMBINING NEW INFO W/ OLD TO CREATE ORIGINAL IDEA

R.S. 7 - REPAIRING UNDERSTANDING

STOP & CLARIFY WHEN CONFUSED

R.S. 8 - CONFIRMING

CONFIRMING ORIGINAL PREDICTIONS THROUGHOUT READING OF TEXT

R. S. 9 - USING PARTS OF BOOK

"USE CHARTS, DIAGRAMS, INDEXES, ETC. TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING"

R. S. 10 - RELFECTING

"REFLECT ON WHAT JUST READ THROUGHOUT READING OF WORK, FORMAL AND INFORMAL"

BASIC STEPS IN TEACHING READING STRATEGIES

"MODEL STRATEGY, EXPLAIN IT, THEN DESCIRBE HOW TO APPLY IT, USE GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS/THINKING MAPS"

DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL

LEFT COLUMN HAS DIRECT QUOTES & PAGE # OF TEXT; RIGHT COLUMN HAS READERS IDEAS ABOUT IT

VOCABULARY BUILDING STRATEGIES

"WORD WALL, USE OF IDIOMS, DICTIONARIES, GLOSSARIES, ANTONYMS, SYNONYMS, HOMONYMS, WORD PARTS, WRITING VOCAB WORDS IN THEIR OWN SENTENCES, ALWAYS BEST IN CONTEXT"

READING COMPREHENSION METHODS

"STORY MAPPING, STORY WEBBING, MNEMONIC (MEMORY RELATED) DEVICES, PUZZLES, RIDDLES, THINK ALOUDS"

SQ3R

"R.COMP. STUDY PLAN: SURVEY, QUESTION, READ, RECITE, REVIEW"

READING COMPREHENSION SKILLS

"IDENTIFY SUPPORTING DETAILS, FACTS, MAIN IDEA, ESSENTIAL MESSAGE, AUTHOR'S PURPOSE, FACT VS OPINION, POINT OF VIEW, INFERENCE, CONCLUSION"

4 LEVELS OF READING COMPREHENSION

"IN ORDER: LITERAL (FACTS), INTERPRETIVE (READ BETWEEN THE LINES), CRITICAL (READ BEYOND THE LINES) & CREATIVE"

MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS OF INFORMATION

"CHARTS, TBLES, GRAPHYS, PICTURES, PRINT, NON-PRINT MEDIA"

CRITICIAL THINKING SKILLS

"ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION ((ALL BASED ON REASON))"

BLOOM'S TAXONOMY

"6 LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION: KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS, EVALUATION"

B.T. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

STUDENTS GIVE BACK INFO ON PAGE

B.T. COMPREHENSION LEVEL

"STUDENTS SHOW THEY CAN GIVE THE MEANING OF TERMS, IDIOMS, FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE & OTHER ELEMENTS"

B.T. APPLICATION LEVEL

DRAWING INFO FROM STORY INTO POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THEIR OWN LIVES

B.T. ANALYSIS LEVEL

EXAMING SMALLER COMPONENTS OF STORY IN DEPTH

B.T. SYNTHESIS LEVEL

MOVING FROM SPECIFICS TO GENERALITIES

B.T. EVALUATION LEVEL

"JUDGE IF PASSAGE IS FACT, OPINION, PROPOGANDA, TRUE, FALES, BIASED, OBJECTIVE, ETC."

COMPREHENSION ASSESSMENT

"ORAL QUESTIONS, WRITTEN QUESTIONS, CLOZE TEST"

CONVERGENT QUESTION

1 RIGHT ANSWER

DIVERGENT QUESTION

MORE THAN 1 RIGHT ANSWER

CLOZE TEST

A PASSAGE WITH OMITTED WORDS THE TEST TAKER MUST SUPPLY

DESCRIPTIVE WRITING

"MAKES FICTION BELIEVABLE TO READER, CREATES CONNECTION"

FAST READERS

TEND TO HAVE BETTER COMPREHENSION

WHOLE LANGUAGE

"ADVOCATES LEARNING TO READ & WRITE AT SAME TIME, NOT SEQUENTIALLY"

UNDIFFERENTIATED WRITING STAGE

WRITING STAGE 1; APPROX AGES 3 - 5; CHILD MAKES RANDOM MARKS ON PAGE

DIFFERENTIATED WRITING STAGE

WRITING STAGE 2: APPROX AGE 4; CHILD STARTS TO INTENTIONALLY BUILD A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOUNDS AND WRITING

PICTOGRAPHIC WRITING STAGE

WRITING STAGE 3: APPROX AGES 4 - 6; MOST IMPORTANT STAGE

PROCESS WRITING

"CURRENT PREVAILING APPROACH, COMBINES CREATIVE AND MECHANICALLY CORRECT METHODS"

PREWRITING STAGE

PROCESS WRITING STAGE 1: COLLECT INFO

COMPOSING / WRITING STAGE

"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 2: IN CLASS STUDENTS CONSULTING WITH EACH OTHER WHILE WRITING, NOT CONCERNED WITH MECHANICS"

REVISING STAGE

PROCESS WRITING STAGE 3: POLISHING AND IMPROVING COMPOSITIONS

EDITING / EVALUATION / POSTWRITING STAGE

"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 4: STUDENTS (ALONG WITH TEACHER) READ AND CORRECT EACH OTHER'S WRITING, TEACH"

REWRITE STAGE

"PROCESS WRITING STAGE 5: AFTER RECEIVING BOTH PRAISE & CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM FROM PEERS AND TEACHER, STUDENTS DO FINAL REVISION"

STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH

LANGUAGE USED IN U.S. SCHOOLS

NON-STANDARD ENGLSIH

"SPOKEN BY MINORITIES, NOT TO BE ERADICATED BUT COMPLIMENTED BY ADDITION OF S. A. ENGLISH"

NOVEL

"EXTENDED FICTIONAL PROSE NARRATIVE, FROM ITALIAN WORD ""NOVELLA"" - ""TALE, PIECE OF NEWS"""

MODES FOR A NOVEL

"REALISM, ROMANTICISM, IMPRESSIONISM, EXPRESSIONISM, NATURALISM, NEOCLASSICISM"

THEME

"WHY = STATEMENT OF REALITY ""LOVE CONQUERS ALL."" ETC. MAIN POINT OF THE STORY; SOMETIMES EXPLICIT, SOMETIMES IMPLICIT"

INTERCALARY CHAPTER

"CHAPTER THAT ALTERNATES BETWEEN THE ""REAL"" STORY AND PREIPHERAL OR PARALLEL STORIES"

TOPIC

"IDEA IN A PHRASE, E.G. ""MAN'S INHUMANITY TO MAN"", THEME CHANGES THIS TO A STATEMENT"

MOTIF

"A STORY DETAIL OR ELEMENT THAT REPEATS THROUGHOUT THE WORK; E.G. LONELY ROADS, SHADOWS, EMPTY HOUSES, ETC."

SETTING

WHERE AND WHEN OF THE NOVEL

STYLE

"5TH ELEMENT OF A NOVEL INVOLVES WORD CHOICE, SYNTAX (ORDER AND LENGTH OF SENTENCES), BALANCE BETWEEN NARRATION AND DIALOGUE, NARRATIVE VOICE (1ST OR 3RD PERSON), ETC."

1ST FOUR ELEMENTS OF NOVEL

"PLOT, CHARACTER, THEME, SETTING"

SHORT STORIES

"DIFFERS FROM PARABLE, FABLE, FOLKTALE...EMPHASIS ON CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT. BECOME POPULAR IN 19TH CENT. SAME ELEMENTS AS NOVEL"

POETRY

"PERHAPS THE OLDEST ART; EMOTIONAL EXPRESSON IN RHYME, VERSE, METER. AN ACQUIRED TASTE IN OUR MODERN CULTURE"

VERSE

SECTION OF A POEM

STANZA

GROUPING OF LINES WITH A METRICAL ORDER

RHYME SCHEME

"REPEATED RHYME (ABAB, ETC.)"

END RHYME

RHYMING WORD AT END OF LINE

INTERNAL RHYME

AT LEAST ONE RHYMING WORD WITHIN THE LINE

SLANT RHYME

APPROXIMATE RHYME

MASCULINE RHYME

1 SYLLABLE WORD OR STRESSES THE FINAL SYLLABLE OF POLYSYLLABIC WORD

FEMININE RHYME

"RHYME OF 2 OR MORE SYLLABLES, STRESS DOES NOT FALL ON LAST SYLLABLE"

FREE VERSE

"LINES OF POEM ARE UNRHYMED, NO RHYTHM "" VERS LIBRE"""

BLANK VERSE

"NO RHYME, BUT DOES HAVE RHYTHM, THEREFORE CLOSED FORM"

METER

PATTERN OR MEASURE OF STRESSED OR ACCENTED WORDS WITHIN A LINE OF VERSE

IAMBIC METER

ALTERNATING STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES

IAMBIC PENTAMETER

"10 SYLLABLES OF RISING AND FALLING STRESSES (SHAKESPEAR, MILTON)"

FOOT

BASIC MEASURING UNIT IN A LINE OF POETRY

FORM

PATTERN OR DESIGN OF A POEM

OPEN FORM

"NO RULES REGARDING NUMBER OF LINES, RHYME SCHEME OR METER"

CLOSED FORM

"SET NUMBER OF LINES, RHYME, SCHEME AND METER"

SONNET

14 LINES

PETRARCHAN SONNET

"ITALIAN, 2 PARTS; 1ST 8 LINES (OCTAVE) SETS UP PROBLEM, 2ND 6 LINES (SESTET) GIVES ANSWER/RESOLUTION"

SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET

ENGLISH

COUPLET

"2 LINE STANZA, END RHYME"

HEROIC COUPLET

"FIRMLY END-STOPPED, IAMBIC PENTAMETER"

EPIC

VASTNESS OF SIZE AND RANGE

BALLADS

"SIMPLER, FOLKSY"

BALLAD STANZA

"4 LINES, ABCB"

LITERARY BALLAD

"COLERIDGE'S ""THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER"

LYRIC

POETRY WITH MUSIC

ELEGY

LYRIC LAMENTING SOMEONE'S DEATH

ODE

"PART OF LYRIC FAMILY, LONGER AND BROADER IN MEANING THAN ELEGY"

VILLANELLE

COURTLY LOVE POEM

TERCETS

3 LINE STANZAS

QUATRAIN

4 LINE STANZAS

SESTINA

"MOST DIFFICULT OF ALL CLOSED FORMS; SUNG BY MEDIEVAL TROUBADOURS; SIX 6-LINE STANZAS, SIX END WORDS IN A CERTAIN ORDER, REPEAT THESE 6 WORDS IN A CLOSING TERCET"

EPIGRAM

"SHORT, ABRUPT POEM, OFTEN CYNICAL;"

"POPE

WILDE"

DOGGEREL

POETRY HORRIBLY DISTORTED TO MAKE RHYME

LIMERICK

AABBA

AUBADE

CLOSED FORM POETRY; SUBJECT LOVERS AT DAWN

DRAMA

PLAYS USED AS EARLY AS 1ST GRADE

FREYTAG'S PYRAMID

"STAGES OF DRAMA, 5 ACTS: INTRODUCTION, COMPLICATION, RISING ACTION, CLIMAX, FALLING ACTION, DÉNOUMENT/CONCLUSION"

ESSAY

"STRAIGHT-FORWARD ACCOUNT OF WRITER'S OPINION ON A SUBJECT: EXPOSITIORY, ARGUMENTATIVE, PERSUASIVE, CRITICAL, NARRATIVE"

SATIRE

"MODE OF WRITING TO EXPOSE, DENOUNCE AND RIDICULE BAD PEOPLE/QUALITIES; GULLIVER'S TRAVELS"

ROMANTICISM

"IDEALISTIC WORLD-VIEW, PERFECTIBLE"

REALISM

"BALANCED WORLD-VIEW, GOOD & BAD"

NATURALISM

"MORE CYNICAL WORLD-VIEW, EVIL OFTEN TRIUMPHS OVER GOOD"

HYPERBOLE

EXAGGERATION

IRONY

"INVERSION/REVERSAL, DOING OR SAYING THE UNEXPECTED; INCONGRUITY"

TRADITIONAL LITERATURE

"ANCIENT STORIES, 7 TYPES"

PARABLES

TRAD.LIT. REALISTIC STORY WITH A MORAL

FABLES

TRAD.LIT. NON-REALISTIC STORY WITH A MORAL; AESOP

FAIRY TALES

"TRAD.LIT.: MAGIC INVOLVED, GOOD ALWAYS WINS OVER EVIL, STEREOTYPES; SNOWWHITE, RAPUNZEL, GRIMM'S ETC."

FOLKTALES

"TRAD.LIT. USES COMMON LANGUAGE, ALWAYS FOR ENTERTAINMENT, RARELY MORALISTIC"

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