Anatomy Chapters 1-6

48 terms by jessicarogers106 

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Anatomy

the study of body structure.

Physiology

the study of how the body functions

Inorganic Compounds

are usually simple molecules that often consist of only one or two different elements.

Organic Compounds

always contain carbon & hydrogen & usually are associated with living things.

Homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Protons

positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.

Neutrons

the particles of the nucleus that have no charge

Electrons

negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus

Intracellular

Within a cell

Extracellular

located or occurring outside a cell or cells

Enzymes

proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body

Endoplasmic Reticulum

internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids

Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

Proteasomes

site of destruction of old or damaged proteins

Golgi Apparatus

Synthesis of carbohydrates. Packaging of materials for secretion from the cell.

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Lysosomes

Contains digestive enzymes

Centrioles

Organize the spindle fibers during cell division.

Cilia

Sweep materials across the cell surface.

Flagellum

Enables a cell to move

Microvilli

Increase a cell's surface area for absorption

Cytoskeleton

Protein microfilaments that give shape to a cell, support the membrane and microvilli, and provide for attachment and movement.

DNA

Double strand of nucleotides in the form of a double helix.

Cell Membrane

Outer boundary of a cell and is made of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins.

Nucleus

Within the cytoplasm and is bounded by a double layered nuclear membrane with many pores.

Cytoplasm

A watery solution of minerals, gases, organic molecules, and cell organelles that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Mitosis

One cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides into two identical cells, each with the diploid number of chromosomes.

Meiosis

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Isotonic

A solution with the same salt concentration as in cells. (0.9%)

Hypotonic

A solution with a lower salt concentration than in cells. (0%)

Hypertonic

A solution with a higher salt concentration than in cells. (3%)

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.

Osmosis

The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

Active Transport

Requires the energy of ATP to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration.

Phagocytosis

Involve a cell engulfing something. Ex: a white blood cell engulfing bacteria.

Synapse

Where neurons meet, the small place bewteen them.

Epidermis

The outer layer of the skin

Dermis

The inner layer of the skin

Exocrine Glands

Gland that releases its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts

Endocrine Glands

glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream

Stratum Corneum

The outermost epidermal layer, consists of many layers of dead cells; all that is left if their keratin.

Red Bone Marrow

Found in spongy bone. Produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.

Yellow Bone Marrow

Found in compact bone in the diaphysis. Mostly adipose tissue.

Hinge joint

movement in one plane

Condyloid Joint

movement in one plane with some lateral movement

Pivot Joint

rotation

Gliding joint

Side to side movement

Saddle

Movement in several planes

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