Name 3 types of muscles and give an example of each.
1) cardiac muscle - heart only
2) smooth muscle - digestive system, urinary, bv
3) skeletal muscle - attaches to our bones to move
T or F..Phasic muslces are a group muscles designed to provide movement?
Complete: Phasic muscles are type ___ muscles, used primarily for quick infrequent powerful movement.
Phasic muscles respond to dysfunction by_________ and stress by and weakening?
Name 2 Phasic muscles?
Deltoid, rhomboids, hamstrings, serratus anterior
What muscle group are the "movers"?
Type II Phasic Muscles -- they respond quick, and strong; that is why they are easy to fatigue
What muscle group are the "stabilizers"?
Type I Postural Muscles --these are muscles that work all the time; slow to fatigue. respond to stress and abuse by becoming tighter and shorter.
Name 2 Postural muscles?
Upper trapezius, levator scapulae, sternocleiodomastoid, latissimus dorsi
T or F...Reflex is an involuntary or automatic response to stimuli; doesn't involve the brain or thought process
T or F..A knee jerk reaction is considered a "simple reflex arc"?
T or F ...Pain threshold is the occurence pain. where enough stimuli has been received to initiate a response
T or F....How we respond to painful stimuli is called "pain tolerance"?
T or F Inflammation is a protective response from an injury or destruction of tissue?
What technique was found to yield the greatest change in ROM?
Connective tissue is comprised of _________ and ____________.
cells and ground substance
Name 3 connective tissue fibers that are produced by fibroblasts.
1) collagen 2) elastin 3) retaculin
What type of connective tissue are tendon and ligaments?
Dense regular c.t.
Name 3 tissue responses to an acute trauma (inflammatory response)?
1) decrease ROM, 2) heat, 3) redness, 4) swelling, 5) pain
Name 2 benefits of massage during the post-acute phase of an injury or chronic musculoskeletal condition.
1) increase ROM, 2) decrease pain
T or F...Connective tissue is highly collagenous?
False---CT is highly vascular
T or F...Joint capusles or the dermis is considered Loose Areolar tissue?
False---it is dense irregular C.T.
T or F...Mast cells secrete histamines which create the redness of the skin when we massage an area?
T or F.. Ground substance remains the same in quantity and consistency throughout our life?
False ---it decreases with age.
T or F...Scar tissue is comprised of collagen fibers placed randomly at an injury site?
T or F...Long term facsial and c.t. dysfunctions are easily reversible with only a few deep tissue massage sessions?
False --they may or may not be reversed.
T or F...During the sub-acute phase of an injury, immature collagen is formed. Deep friction and joint mobilizations are necessary to allow the collagen to form and position in propor tissue alignment.
False - Gentle massage (not deep) and gentle mobilization is done to reduce edema, reduce adhesions and increase circulation.
T or F...Over-use Trauma Syndrome happens quickly?
False---it has a slow onset, from slow continuous use over time.
What tissue is addressed when applying skin rolling?
superficial fascia and skin
This c.t. fiber allows for strength.
This c.t. fiber c.t. allows for its elasticity.
T or F...A stretched rubber band is anexample of a tensile force?
True--its a force that acts to pull the muscle--stretch it!
T or F...Viscous property of c.t. means that you stretch it so much that it won't go back to its original form?
T or F...Visoelastic property of c.t. means it has elastin to stretch and then return to its original length.
T or F...Treating c.t. first makes the treatment/massage more effective?
When performing CT techniques, give one reasons why are strokes very slow, deep to tolerance and usually without lotion?
1) to avoid engaging the sympathic nervous system'
2) to avoid changing the compositon of the tissue
3) client can adjust to the technique
4) client can provide some feedback
T or F... Connective tissue forms the support and framework for most of our anatomy?
True--- it is comprised of cells, fibers and ground substance.; hihgly vascular; link between structures iin our body
T or F..Skin behavior depends on combination of collagen, elastin and reticulr fibers, size and type of collagen, % of collagen to elastin and reticular, age of collagen?
T or F... bone tissue has no BV or nerve supply?
False---bone tissue is highly vascular; it is cartilage tissue that no bv or nerves.
T or F..Compact bone is the dense outer layer, covered by periosteum which serves as atachmetn for muscle?
True; spongy bone is the inner portio of bone
T or F... The viscous/plastic property of Ct is collagen?
T or F..The visoelastic property of CT is elastin?
T or F...Improper postures, immobility and illness cause fascia tissue to distort or shorten?
T or F..fascia tissue realigns according to the dysfunction --possibly causing long-term pathology?
T or F..Distortions may be reversible if tissue is stretched regularly.
T or F..In the "Maturation" Phase of trauma, no inflammation is present?
With a muscle ____________, muscle fibers are puled beyond their stretch?
With a muscle __________, ligament fibers are pulled beyond their normal stretch.
What are the 2 classifications of joints?
1) structure and 2) function
Name a diarthrodial joint (freely moveable)?
1) elbow, 2) knee
Name a 2 multiaxial joint?
hip, or shoulder
Name a 2 biaxial joint?
Name a uniaxial joint?
In what plane does flexion occur?
In what plane does abduction occur?
In what place does internal/external rotation occur?
Joint ROM of primarily reliant on what 3 conditions?
1) integrity of joint capsule, 2) integrity of surounding c.t. and skin. 3) ligament, tendon and associated nerve integrity, 4) attachment site, 5) flexibility of assocaited musculture.
Name 4 highly contagious skin conditions that are contraindicated to massage therapy?
1) bacterial- impetigo 2) viral-warts, herpes simplex, 3) fungal-athlets foot, ringworm, 4)parasitic- scabies, lice
Joints or articulations are classified two ways, ________ and __________?
structural and functional
T or F..Fibroblasts cells are responsible for the production of collagen, elastin, and ground substance?
T or F...When "creep" happens to a muscle, the tissue becomes deformed?
True---the slow elongation fo collagen fibers during and following constant or repeated stretch makes the tissue deformed.
What do muscle spindles detect?
Changes in length of the muscle.
What do nociceptors detect?
An involuntary contraction to a muscle that is usually painful is called a muscle ______?
A protective mechanism that prevents injury to muscle tissue and is initiated upon a sudden or intense stretch is called a "stretch ________"?
T or F...Tensile force is a force that acts to pull the muscle ---stretch it?
What c.t. is for joint capsules and dermis of skin?
Define a joint?
Point of contact between 2 bones.