early 1900s; wanted to improve conditions in America: socially, politically, economically; civil rights for African Americans/women, safety in the workplace, better labeling of food and drink, child labor, workman's compensation, conservation of natural resources
Progressives targets were?
Social, economical, political and cultural problems, corruption, monopolies and social injustice.
What are the characteristics of the progressives?
The progressive army was large,diverse, and widely deployed, but it had a single battle cry; "Strengthen the State."
How did the progressives want to use the government?
As an agency of human welfare.
Progressives wanted to change?
The conditions of the industrial life.
In progress. They believed that people were capable of recognizing problems and solving them.
Evangelical Protestantism, natural and social sciences to change environment to change the people.
grew out of Populist; centered in urban cities. Insisted that society could no longer afford the luxury of a limit-less "let-alone" ( laissez-faire.) policy.
What are the targets of the progressive roots?
Bloated trust, corruption and wrong doing.
widespread, it touched the entire nation.
Jacob A. Riis
early muckraker, wrote How the Other Half Lives, which described the dark and dirty slums of New York
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
added social justice to suffrage on their lists of needed reforms.
writer or journalist of the early 1900s who uncovered shameful conditions in business and other areas of American life. Like an investigative reporter.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
Ida M. Tarbell
journalist who published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company
David G Phillips
Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" which boldly charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads and trusts, not the people. His indictment impressed President Roosevelt. He continued his writing until he was killed in 1911.
Some of the most effective fire of muckrakers was directed at social evils.The ugly list included the immoral "white slave" traffic in women , the rickety slums, and the appalling number of industrial accidents.
Why did muckrakers criticize patents medicines?
They contained liquor and habit forming medicines, and "doped" the press with lavish advertisement.
What did muckrakers signify with the progressive reform movement?
To right social wrongs, they relied on public out cry to expose the corruptions. They sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it.
Progressive reformers included militarists such as?
Theodore Roosevelt and Jane Addams.
Political Progressivism appealed to?
To everyone, they believe in the ability to make the world a better place.
Progressive political reforms wanted?
They wanted direct primary elections.
Procedures available in some states for citizens to put proposed laws and constitutional amendment on the ballot for voter approval or rejection
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Direct election of senators
Progressivism in the cities and states
In 1901 it had appointed expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs.
movement to encourage city planning to include better housing, develop more park land and improve public transportation
Progressive urban reform
Born during the depression of the 1890's, it attacked "slumlords", juvenile delinquency and attacking prostitution. It reorganized the election.
Tax codes were updated to be more equable to not favor big businesses
Progressive civil service
The election process was brought under scrutiny and trained civil servants came in and the civil service developed to oversee these operations. The goal was efficiency and results. Reorganized the municipal governments and gave them control of the utility regulations. oversee these operations. The goal was efficiency and results. Reorganized the municipal governments and gave them control of the utility regulations.
Progressive Regulatory commision
Municipal departments to run things. They hired engineers to oversee the utilities and the water services. They hired Dr. and nurses to improve city health and health management. City planners came in to develop parks and highway development.
Progressive State Reform
State laws increasingly regulated the labor laws of women and children, state laws looked at rail roads and utilities, they looked at corporate and inheritance taxes. Mental and penal institutions. Looked at funding for state university's.
Robert La Follette and the Wisconsin Idea
Robert La Follette is governor of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Idea is the most comprehensive state reform.
Civil service, anti-corruption measures, state-income tax.
State reform from the Progressive Era.
Women played a large role in the progressive movement and the push for social justice. Women were middle-class and well educated . Society would not let them work. Some of them became settlement house workers., 19th century notion of "separate spheres" and notion that the women's place = the home
female progressives defended political activism; political activism was not in a separate sphere, it was just an extension of their traditional roles in the home and as wives and mothers
took up reform attempts that reinforced genders norms (ex: the caretaker)
campaigned against chid labor, liquor, sanitation, etc
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
Numerous woman's organizations encouraged the progressive movement. An example of a woman's club broadening its scope to become part of the social justice movement is the General Federation of Womens Clubs, who met for coffee and book talk. They began to look closely at the conditions around them and started to support things like women and children workers. They became involved in the workers movements. Also pushed to improve schools, improve food safety standards and beautify the community.
Women's trade union league
a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions
investigated and publicized problems with child labor
Muller v. Oregon
The national consumers league brought pressure for laws of safeguarding women and children in the work place. In the landmark Supreme Court case Muller v Oregon, the supreme court accepted the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers. These special protection of women were challenged in Muller v. Oregon. The supreme court did find in favor of the laws protecting women.
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed the first chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours.
Triangle shirtwaist company fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
In 1917 30 states had put worker's comp. laws on the books , providing insurance to workers injured in industrial accidents.
Women's Christian Temperance Union.Frances E Willard founded, believe in temperance which was no alcohol.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
1910, gave the interstate commerce commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companies; included communications
Theodore Roosevelt's square deal for labor
He feared that the " public interest " was being submerged in the drifting seas of indifference,
United Mine Workers strike
Strike in PA that TR realized would make people run out of coal resulting in a loss of heat. So, he threatened to send troops to work the mines unless the owners agreed to negotiate. This is called collective bargaining.
White House Conference
Roosevelt summoned representatives of the striking miners and mine owners to the white house.
Department of commerce and labor
TR est. this dept armed with the Bureau of Corporations meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era
Elkins Act of 1903
law that prohibited railroad rebates and punished those who accepted them
Hepburn act of 1906
this act stated that free passes, with a hint of bribery were severely restricted, this expanded the ICC which was extended to include express companies, sleeping car companies, and pipelines
Threat of an anti-trust action
Roosevelt as a trust buster first burst into the headlines in 1902 with an attack on the northern securities company, a railroad holding company organized by the financial titan JP Morgan and empire builder James Hill.They sought to achieve a virtual monopoly of the railroads in the north west.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Meat inspection act of 1906
Passed in 1906 largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking industry
Pure food and drug act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Desert land act of 1877
earth conservation act: government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the soil within three years
He believed in conserving the environment as well as protecting it by "providing a barrier of federal regulation and protection."
Newlands act of 1902
authorized Washington to collect money from the sale of public lands in the Western states, using funds for the development of irrigation projects
hetch hetchy valley
The federal government allowed the city of San Francisco to build a dam here in 1913. This was a blow to preservationists, who wished to protect the Yosemite National Park, where the dam was located. (720)
Economic setback in 1907 "Roosevelt's panic"
Roosevelt suffered a sharp set back in 1907 when a short but punishing panic descended on Wall Street . The financial flurry featured frightened "runs" on banks, suicides and criminal indictments against specualtors.
The panice of 1907 paved the way for long-overdue ____ (financial) ____.
it authorized national banks to issue emergency currency, was the precursor of the Federal Reserve Act
regulated business and industry, conserved resources, favored vigorous foreign policy, conservation, panama canal
Election of 1908
Taft, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.
ELECTION OF 1904
Teddy Roosevelt/republican vs. Alton V. Parker/democrat vs. Eugene V. Debs/socialist= Roosevelt wins
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
American money in the Caribbean
Washington urged Wall Street bankers to pump dollars into the financial vacuums in Honduras and Haiti to keep out foreign funds.
American military following American $$
Sporadic disorders in palm-fronded Cuba, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic brought American forces to these countries to restore order and protect American investments.
Taft the trustbuster
Taft brought 90 lawsuits against the trusts during his 4 years in office as opposed to Roosevelt who brought just 44 suits in 7 years.In 1911, the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company, stating that it violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890. Also in 1911, the Courts handed down its "rule of reason"; a doctrine that stated that only those trusts that unreasonably restrained trade were illegal.
Standard oil in 1911
the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company, stating that it violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890.
US steel in 1911
Taft decided to press an anti-trust suit against the the U.S, Corporation.
bill placed on high tariffs on many imports (Taft betrayed the promise of his campaign to lower tariffs)