Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS)
______ is the primary means by which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) carries out statutory responsibilities assigned in titles 6, 10, 22 and 50 of the United States Code (USC).
CJCS primary roles are:
1) conduct independent assessments;
2) provide independent advice to the President, Secretary of Defense, National Security Council (NSC), and Homeland Security Council (HSC);
3) assist the President and Secretary of Defense in providing unified strategic direction to the Armed Forces
is a system that enables the Chairman to effectively assess, advise, direct, and execute in fulfillment of these statutory responsibilities
CJCS tasking documents for combatant commanders include:
Unified Action Armed Forces
What document provides you with your combatant command's strategic taks, objectives, and apportionment of forces for contigency planning?
Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)
The plan provides detailed formation for military ops, including CONOPS, unit identifications, and schedules?
What document provides formal structure to the Chairman's statutory responsibilities and considers the strategic environment and the alignment of ends, ways, means, risk, and risk mitigation over time to provide the best possible assessments, advice, and direction of the Armed Forces in support of senior leaders and processes at the national and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) level?
This provides integrated mechanisms for assessment, advice, and direction and enables assessment through ensuring that the Chairman has the most comprehensive picture of the Joint Force and the strategic environment.
Joint Strategic Planning System
The three major components of the JSPS that address the Chairman's statutory responsibilities are:
What are the three components of the Joint Strategy Review (JSR) process?
Capabilities Risk Assessment (CRA)
Capabilities Gap Assessment (CGA)
Chairman's Program Recommendation (CPR)
What process is the synthesis of Comprehensive Joint Assessment information and Joint Staff functional estimates that informs the Chairman's advice development and directive activities?
Joint Strategy Review (JSR)
What provides a central unified mechanism for combatant commands and Services to describe the strategic environment, their opportunities, challenges, state of their organization, and overarching requirements?
Comprehensive Joint Assessment (CJA)
The annual JSPS cycle is based on a ________.
4-year battle rhythm
During ______, the President publishes the National Security Strategy (NSS); OSD (supported by the Joint Staff) executes the Quadrennial Defense Review and develops strategic direction documents.
During years__________, a formal JSR report is prepared and tailored to best inform strategy development, advice development, and direction activities.
1 and 3, or as required
During years ________ the bulk of formal strategic guidance is produced to include the Unified Command Plan (UCP) from the President; the National Defense Strategy (NDS), Guidance for the Development of the Force (GDF), and GEF (with presidential approved contingency planning guidance) from the Secretary of Defense; and the NMS and JSCP from the Chairman
2 and 4,
The military's contribution to national strategic planning consists of joint strategic planning with its three subsets:
security cooperation planning,
joint operation planning, and
What type of planning provides strategic guidance and direction to the Armed Forces of the United States for security cooperation planning, joint operation planning, and force planning?
Joint strategic planning
Joint strategic planning occurs primarily at the _____________ to help the President, Secretary of Defense (SecDef), and other members of the National Security Council formulate political-military assessments, define political and military objectives and end states, develop strategic concepts and options, and allocate resources.
national- and theater-strategic levels
At the national-strategic level, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), in consultation with other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), performs joint strategic planning to:
(1) Advise and assist the President and SecDef regarding the strategic direction of the Armed Forces of the United States and the preparation of policy guidance
(2) Advise the SecDef on program recommendations and budget proposals to conform to priorities established in strategic plans
(3) Transmit the strategic guidance and direction of the President and SecDef to the combatant commands, military Services, and combat support agencies.
What is the primary means by which the CJCS performs joint strategic planning?
Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS)
is the means by which Department of Defense (DOD) encourages and enables countries and organizations to work with us to achieve strategic objectives
Who identifies security cooperation objectives, assesses the effectiveness of security cooperation activities, and revises goals when required to ensure continued support for US interests abroad?
Name some examples of typical security cooperation objectives include:
creating favorable military regional balances of power;
advancing mutual defense or security arrangements;
building allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations;
preventing conflict and crisis.
6 Categories of Security Cooperation:
(1) Military contacts, including senior official visits, port visits, counterpart visits, conferences, staff talks, and personnel and unit exchange programs.
(2) Nation assistance, including foreign internal defense, security assistance programs, and planned humanitarian and civic assistance activities.
(3) Multinational training.
(4) Multinational exercises, including those in support of the Partnership for Peace Program.
(5) Multinational education for US personnel and personnel from other nations, both overseas and in the United States.
(6) Arms control and treaty monitoring activities.
What joint publication discusses how to facilitate coordination and cooperation with US Government agencies, and intergovernmental, nongovernmental, and regional security organizations?
Joint Publication (JP) 3-08, Interagency, Intergovernmental Organization, and Nongovernmental Organization Coordination during Joint Operations Volume I
This type of planning is primarily the responsibility of the Services and US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is conducted under the administrative control that runs from the SecDef to the Secretaries of the Military Departments to the Service Chiefs.
This type of planning is the overarching process that guides joint force commanders (JFCs) in developing plans for the employment of military power within the context of national strategic objectives and national military strategy to shape events, meet contingencies, and respond to unforeseen crises
Joint Operation Planning (JP 5-0)
_______ is an adaptive, collaborative process that can be iterative and/or parallel to provide actionable direction to commanders and their staffs across multiple echelons of command.
Joint operation planning
Joint operation planning includes all activities that must be accomplished to plan for an anticipated operation—
demobilization of forces
________is the process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency.
What provides the foundation for, determines the scope of, and is limited by mobilization, deployment, and sustainment planning.
encompasses the movement of forces and their sustainment resources from their original locations to a specific destination to conduct joint operations
encompasses the movement of units, individuals, or supplies deployed in one area to another area, or to another location within the area for the purpose of further employment along with return of forces and resources to their original location and status
is the process of transitioning a conflict or wartime military establishment and defense-based civilian economy to a peacetime configuration while maintaining national security and economic vitality.
Who have primary responsibility for planning the employment of joint forces?
The CJCS, CCDRs, and subordinate JFCs
The headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in joint operation planning or committed to conduct military operations are collectively termed the _________
Joint Planning and Execution Community (JPEC).
Who organizes the JPEC for joint operation planning by establishing supported and supporting command relationships among the combatant commands?
The SecDef, with the advice and assistance of the CJCS,
Who has primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the JSCP, the Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG), or other joint operation planning authority?
The supported commander
Who provides forces, assistance, or other resources to a supported commander in accordance with the principles set forth in JP 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF)?
How do CCDRs plan at the national and theater strategic levels of war?
through participation in the development of NMS, and the development of theater estimates, strategies, and plans
Who develops OPLANs for possible contingencies across the range of military operations?
Other responsibilities of the CCDRs include:
(1) Conducting strategic estimates, identifying required resources, and identifying, assessing, and managing risks.
(2) Assisting the CJCS in developing national military strategy and formulating theater and security cooperation strategies in conformance with national strategic plans.
(3) Identifying and planning for contingencies not specifically assigned by the President, SecDef, or CJCS.
(4) Preparing and executing joint OPORDs.
(5) Advising the CJCS and SecDef of other agencies' capabilities desired or required for OPLAN execution.
Functional combatant commands participate in joint operation planning typically as a __________ to a supported geographic combatant command.
The combination of _________ promotes coherent planning across all levels of war and command echelons, whether the requirement is for a limited, single-phase operation such as noncombatant evacuation or for a multiphase campaign involving high-intensity combat operations.
JOPES and JOPP
What formally integrates the planning activities of the entire JPEC during the initial planning and plan refinement that occurs both in peacetime and when faced with an imminent crisis?
a less formal but proven analytical process, which provides a methodical approach to planning at any organizational level and at any point before and during joint operations.
What is the focus of JOPP?
the interaction between an organization's commander, staff, the commanders and staffs of the next higher and lower commands, and supporting commanders and their staffs
The ultimate product of JOPES and JOPP is an __________ for a specific mission, the process is continuous throughout an operation.
OPLAN or OPORD
The _________ supports the systematic, on-demand, creation and revision of executable plans, with up-to-date options, as circumstances require.
What are the goals of JOPP?
The goal is shortened planning timelines and current, high-fidelity, up-to-date plans
is the most detailed of the planning products, and provides a complete concept of operations (CONOPS), all annexes applicable to the plan, and the time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) for the specific operation
A joint OPLAN
is the common thread that integrates and synchronizes the activities of the Joint Staff, combatant commands, Services, and combat support agencies
encompasses the processes and products by which the President, SecDef, and CJCS provide strategic guidance
The President provides strategic guidance through the:
national security presidential directives,
and other strategic documents in conjunction with additional guidance from other members of the NSC
Focused US Government efforts to understand and engage key audiences in order to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of US Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power
an interagency effort, which provides an opportunity to advance US regional and global partnerships
Level 3 (CONPLAN) and level 4 (OPLAN) plans include an annex Y; will contain a proposed strategy, which includes synchronized information objectives, audiences, themes, and actions to deliver these communications for interagency coordination and implementation
Four interrelated national-level systems influence and direct the joint operation planning responsibilities
Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) process,
What defense-wide process that relates resources to strategy? Its primary objective is the acquisition and allocation of resources to meet the operational requirements of the CCDRs and the provisioning requirements of the Services and combat support agencies.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution (PPBE) process
In the PPBE process, who establishes policies, strategy, and prioritized goals for the DOD, which are subsequently used to guide resource allocation decisions that balance the guidance with fiscal constraints?
___________ is one of the primary systems by which the CJCS, in coordination with the other members of the JCS and the CCDRs, accomplishes contingency planning and provides military advice to the President and SecDef and recommendations to the PPBE.
JSPS (products are NMS and JSCP)
What is a primary source document used by the CJCS to develop the JSCP?
CPG (along with NMS, GFM Guidance)
What guidance includes the relative priority of the plans, specific force levels, and supporting resource levels projected to be available for the period of time for which such plans are to be effective?
Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG)
What document provides guidance and directs the CJCS to develop plans to carry out specific missions?
Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG)
What documents provide guidance during the Joint Strategic Planning System process?
Global Force Management Guidance
What guidance integrates complementary assignment, apportionment, and allocation processes into a single management process in support of the NDS and joint force availability requirements?
GFM (global avail of US Mil forces)
What provides military strategic and operational guidance and direction to CCDRs and Service Chiefs for preparation of OPLANs and security cooperation plans based on current military capabilities?
What is the primary vehicle through which the CJCS exercises responsibility to provide for the preparation of joint operation plans?
What is the link between strategic guidance and the joint operation planning activities and products that accomplish that guidance?
A broad generic term that describes the wide scope of actions (including the synchronization and/or integration of joint or multinational military operations with the activities of local, state, and federal government agencies and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations) taking place within unified commands, subordinate unified commands, or joint task forces under the overall direction of the commanders of those commands.
Within the context of Department of Defense involvement, the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged US Government agencies for the purpose of achieving an objective.
What provides the CCDR and subordinate JFCs with an increased capability to coordinate with other USG agencies and departments?
joint interagency coordination group (JIACG)
an element of a CCDR's staff, is an interagency staff group that establishes regular, timely, and collaborative working relationships between civilian and military operational planners
Provides CCDRs with the capability to collaborate at the operational level with other USG civilian agencies and departments
joint interagency coordination group (JIACG)
The_______ provides USG foreign policy perspectives and diplomatic considerations and establishes linkages with US embassies in the OA and with DOS. The ________ supplies information regarding DOS policy goals and objectives that are relevant to the CCDR's theater strategy and the subordinate JFC's plans.
A supported commander is responsible for developing __________for each OPLAN. _______ should specify for interagency partners not only the capabilities that military planners have determined the military may need, but also the shared understanding of the situation, and common objectives required to resolve the situation.
annex V, (Interagency Coordination),
This phase of the interagency coordination will contain military security cooperation activities to be coordinated with other interagency activities
generally require a high level of coherent, coordinated interagency activity.
stabilize and enable civil authority phases
actions are those taken to maintain or restore essential services and manage and mitigate problems resulting from disasters and catastrophes, including natural, man-made, or terrorist incidents.
Configuration Management (CM)
Which federal agency will have lead responsibility for foreign CM and which for the the "Primary Agency" for domestic CM?
_____ is a strategic goal of the United States, and joint operation planning will frequently be accomplished within the context of multinational operation planning for multinational operations.
A _________ is an ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action
An ________ is a result of formal agreements between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members.
alliance (i.e. NATO)
involves the preparation of combined, mutually developed and approved plans governing the employment of the forces of two nations for a common contingency
Bilateral operation planning
What is the objective of PPBES?
is to link DOD strategic goals to the programmatic requirements needed to carry out the Nation's military missions
What establishes "fiscally informed" capability development priorities and provides risk guidance to inform investment planning?
Guiidance for Development of Force (GDF)
wish list of programs and priorities for every constituency
The employment priorities of the combatant commanders are described, in part, by the new ____________. Provides CCDRs with the framework to develop campaign and operational plans from which near-term capability gaps can be identified
Guidance for Employment of the Force (GEF).
Criticisms about products of planning and programming phase products (Service/Agency POMs)
failing to comply with various guidance documents and combatant commander requests but also improperly accounting for cost, schedule, and technology risks in their investment programs. They are also cited for underestimating industrial base issues, missing economic order opportunities, and focusing more on near-term procurement than on life-cycle costs.
According to Church and Warner, _________ is the latest effort to grapple with competing Service and agency priorities in carrying out capability development.
It establishes capability portfolio managers to assess and recommend changes to optimize a wide range of activities associated with broad capability areas
Capability Portfolio Management (CPM)
What are some of the limitations of the CPM? (2)
- Service programs are often highly interdependent, and optimizing one capability area can have significant impacts on other capability areas and capability development efforts, as well as on acquisition process efficiency
- many programs, such as those supporting multimission platforms, do not lend themselves to a simple portfolio categorization
What are the four interrelated factors that need to be considered during any strategic deliberations on defense policy planning, programming, and budgeting?
- grand strategy,
- the Bush legacy,
- the nature of the threat, and
- the nature of modern warfare
According to Popescu's article, "Bridging the Strategy-Resources Gap, Defense Planning in a Time of Crisis", what is the first factor that should influence the defense budgeting process?
Obama administration's grand strategy
Describe the problems with the Bush Defense Legacy. (4)
1st, plans under the Bush administration ignored the future costs of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
2nd, (QDRs) strategic reviews too often fail to ensure the necessary connections between means and ends
3rd, military manpower costs have been steadily increasing over recent years and are expected to remain very high in the near future
cost escalation for DOD's acquisition portfolio
What are challenges of funding stability operations and what are plausible solutions?
Such campaigns, as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan showed once again, have the potential of becoming costly affairs with uncertain prospects of victory, especially if the end-state goals are expansive (that is, if they include a large number of political, economic, and social reforms usually grouped under the "nationbuilding" category).
What are challenges of funding stability operations and what are plausible solutions?
- uncoordinated, at odds
- improperly account for cost, schedule, technology risks, underestimating industrial base, missing economic opportunities, focusing on near-term procurement than lifecycle costs
According to Church & Warner, the Obama administration needs to shorten program review timeline
According to Sharp, the govt needs to limit requirement creep, keep experience program mgrs, and insist on realistic cost estimates
According to Sharp, four principles seem logical for guiding DOD's acquisitions process:
Limit requirement changes made after development has already begun and insist on knowledge demonstration early and often
Keep experienced program managers and support staff in place to provide accountability and continuity
Retain more DOD employees in program development roles so oversight is not entirely outsourced to contractors
Insist on realistic cost estimates from industry and/or start getting estimates from an independent source.
Thankfully, some incremental steps