Bio 211 Final Review - Ch 23

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45 terms · Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Review Chapter 23 - Midlands Tech

Digestive function: Chief cells

secretes inactive enzyme pepsinogen
activated into pepsin by HCI and by pepsin itself (a positive feedback mechanism)

Digestive function: Parietal cells

secretes HCI (denatures food proteins, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria) and Intrinsic Factor (Glycoprotein required for absorption of vitamin B12 in small intestine)

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: Mouth

Salivary amylase and lingual lipase begin to break down starch; no nutrient absorption

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: stomach

Denaturation of proteins; Enzymatic digestion of proteins by pepsin; Secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: small intestines

Delivery of bile, enzymes, and bicarbonate from the liver and pancreas; absorbs carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: Large intestines

Bacteria ferment indigestible carbohydrates; Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are reclaimed

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: parietal cells

HCI denatures protein in food, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria; Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein required for absorption of vitamin B12 in small intestine

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: chief cells

Inactive enzyme pepsinogen; Activated to pepsin by HCl and by pepsin itself

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: liver

Process bloodborne nutrients; Store fat-soluble vitamins; Perform detoxification; Produce ~900 ml bile per day

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: gallbladder

Stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: pancreas

Pancreatic islets secrete insulin and glucagon; •Acini secrete pancreatic juice (Watery alkaline solution neutralizes chyme)

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: hepatic portal vein

Transports carbohydrates and lipids to the liver

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: villi

Motile fingerlike extensions (~1 mm high) of the mucosa; increases surface area of proximal duodenum for nutrient absorption

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: microvilli

Projections (brush border) of absorptive cells; Bear brush border enzymes; increases surface area of proximal duodenum for nutrient absorption

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: lacteal

lymphatic capillaries of the small intestines that take up lipids

Chemical digestion and Nutrient absorption: salivary glands

glands in the mouth that secrete saliva (begins to break down starch and moistens food to aid in swallowing)

Function: Pepsin

secreted by parietal cells in the stomach; digests proteins

Function: Bile

Created by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; emulsifies lipids

Function: HCl

Hydrochloric Acid secreted from parietal cells of the stomach; denatures protein in food, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria

Function: secretin

released by intestinal cells and causes secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice by duct cells

Function: lipases

Secreted by the pancreas to break down fats

Function: gastrin

Released by gastrendocrine cells; stimulates motility of the digestive tract and stimulates the secretion of HCl

Function: vitamin K

Synthesized in the large intestines from bacterial metaboliam

Function: salivary amylase

produced by the salivary glands in the mouth and begin to break down starch

Function: pancreatic amylase

produced by the pancreas and completes the breakdown of starch in the small intestines

Function: Cholecystokinin

secreted by intestinal cells; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder

Function: intrinsic factor

secreted by parietal cells in the stomach; Needed for absorption of vitamin B12

Function: proteases

secreted by the pancreas; aids in the digestion of proteins

Function: bicarbonate ions

produced by the liver and pancreas; needed for nutrient absorption in the small intestine

Function: chylomicrons

water-soluble lipoproteins created within cells

Function: brush border

The microvilli of the duodenum; Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin; digests carbohydrates

Layers of the GI tract

Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis externa (the external muscular layer), and serosa

Major functions of the liver

Process bloodborne nutrients; Store fat-soluble vitamins; Perform detoxification; Produce ~900 ml bile per day

Function and location: Villi

fingerlike projections of the mucosa of the small intestine; increase surface area for absorption of nutrients

Function and location: Microvilli

make up the brush border of the small intestine; increase surface area for absorption of nutrients

Function and location: Rugae

the long, longitudinal folds made by the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach when it collapses inward (is empty)

Function and location: Plicae Circulares

deep, permanent folds of the mucosa and submucosa of the duodenum; slows chyme allowing for more time to absorb nutrients

Function and location: Cystic Duct

connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct; bile drains into the bile duct

Function and location: Duodenum

the first segment of the small intestines between the stomach and the jejunum; most active absorption happens here

Function and location: Jejunum

the second segment of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum; absorption of carbohydrates and proteins

Function and location: Ileum

the third segment of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the large intestine; absorbs vitamin B12 and bile salts

Function and location: Cecum

the entrance into the large intestine; absorb fluids and salts that remain after digestion and absorption

Function and location: Chyme

semifluid, creamy mass consisting of partially digested food and gastric juice; in the stomach and moves into the small intestine

Function and location: Peristalsis

progressive, wavelike contractions that move foodstuffs through the intestines

Function and location: Haustra

the pocketlike sacs of the wall of the large intestine; contract to help to move chyme through the large intestine

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