Great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles
Italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power; used armed force and violence to take over the government
Despots or one-man rulers
Rule of merchant aristocracies
Government in which political power theoretically resides with the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives
The space and personnel around a prince as he made laws, received ambassadors, made appointments, took his meals, and proceeded through the streets; afforded the despot or oligarch the opportunity to display and assert his wealth and power
Movement during the Renaissance which stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and full development of one's capabilities and talents; quest for glory was a central component, since it showed people recognized and appreciated their own talents
Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities; the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Involves a basic concern with the material world instead of the external world of spirit; the view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
Machiavelli's most famous work; a political treatise that explains how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase political power; suggests the ruler should be cunning, corrupt, etc.
a salt tax in France; an example of one of the ways monarchs could raise money by levying taxes on basic food and clothing
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Published by Charles; asserted superiority of a general council over the papacy, giving the French crown major control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the pope of French ecclesiastical revenues; established Gallican (French) liberties because it affirmed the special rights of the French crown over the French church; helped consolidate authority of French crown
National governing council of England under Henry VII, demonstrated the monarchy's distrust of nobility by excluding it
Court of Star Chamber
Judicial offshoot of the royal council which dealt with any real or potential aristocratic threats; named because of the stars painted on the ceiling of the room; applied principles of Roman law and use procedures that went directly against English common law
Justices of the peace
Unpaid local officials relied upon by the Tudors; influential landowners in the shires who handled all the work of local government, apprehending and punishing criminals, enforcing parliamentary statutes, fixing wages and prices, maintaining standards of weights and measures, and checking moral behavior
"Brotherhoods"; medieval institution revived by Ferdinand and Isabella to curb rebellious and warring aristocracy; popular groups in towns given the authority to act as local police forces and judicial tribunals; savage
Translation of the Spanish word "conversos", referring to Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the fourteenth century in order to avoid persecution; also called "Marranos"