Biology and Behavior

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Neuron

a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses, a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

Neurontransmitter

A chemical substance that is release by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron; a chemical that transport impluses across synapses

Glial Cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. Specialized cells that remove waste products from the brain

Receptor site

A location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock. Where neurotransmitters plug in.

Acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contraction and affects learning and memory and also keeps the heart from beating too rapidly.

Endorphine

A neurotransmitter that affects the metabolosm of glucose and nutrient energy stored in muscles to be released during strenuous exercise.

GABA

Primary inhibitory neurotransmutter in the brain.

Myelin Sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

Serotonin

a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory, aggression, and appetite.

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