Experience Psychology-CH12

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Two-Phase Quiz 4 Chapter 12

1. When a behavior is _____, it is often considered abnormal.
A. negative and more impulsive than is generally acceptable
B. atypical in that it deviates from what is acceptable in a culture
C. overly repetitive
D. unique

B

2. When a behavior interferes with a person's ability to function effectively in the world, it is considered _____.
A. deviant
B. dependent
C. maladaptive
D. repetitive

C

3. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria that psychologists use to define abnormality?
A. Statistically rare
B. Maladaptive
C. Distressful or upsetting
D. Deviant from socially acceptable norms

A

4. Like many of his friends, Justin enjoys watching pornography on the internet. Lately he's been missing work so he can stay home and spend more time on the computer. This behavior is not only jeopardizing his job, it is also interfering with his relationship. Justin's girlfriend is upset about him spending too much time on the computer and she is threatening to break up with him. Justin's behavior meets which of the following criteria for abnormality?
A. Deviance
B. Maladaptive
C. Distressful
D. None of these

B

5. The American Psychiatric Association defines abnormal behavior primarily through the _____ approach.
A. biological
B. psychological
C. sociocultural
D. cognitive

A

6. Thirty-year-old Armand feels compelled to save objects that others might throw away. He is afraid that he will discard something he will need later, so his home is filled with old junk. Armand's neighbors have complained and he feels embarrassed. Which criteria that define abnormality are applicable in this case?
A. Armand's behavior deviates from the norm and is distressing for him.
B. Armand's behavior has drawn the attention of other people.
C. Hoarding behavior is normal through adolescence but should disappear by the time the person is in his early- to mid-twenties.
D. Saving junk suggests that Armand is paranoid.

A

7. Jason is very depressed and can't help but think that life holds few rewards. He feels upset and frustrated by the fact that he just can't "shake the blues." The _____ aspect of abnormal behavior applies to Jason.
A. deviant
B. maladaptive
C. dangerous
D. distressful

D

8. The _____ approach to disorders primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality.
A. psychological
B. sociocultural
C. biological
D. evolutionary

C

9. Which theoretical approach emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorders?
A. The sociocultural approach
B. The psychological approach
C. The humanistic approach
D. The biological approach

B

10. According to the biopsychosocial model, abnormal behavior is influenced ______.
A. predominately by biological factors
B. predominately by psychological factors
C. predominately by social and cultural factors
D. by the combination or interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors

D

11. Marilyn is depressed a great deal of the time and seeks help from a doctor. She is diagnosed as having a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance. Marilyn is most likely being treated by someone who adheres to the _____ model of psychological disorders.
A. biological or biomedical
B. behavioral
C. psychoanalytic
D. cognitive

A

12. When treating a client with a psychological disorder, a therapist makes the assumption that the person's difficulties stem primarily from the context in which a person lives. This therapist most likely identifies with the _____ approach to psychological disorders.
A. biological
B. psychological
C. sociocultural
D. biopsychosocial

C

13. What theoretical approach to psychological disorders would be most likely to consider a person's gender and ethnicity when diagnosing a disorder?
A. Sociocultural
B. Behavioral
C. Biological
D. Cognitive

A

14. Of the following factors, _____ is the strongest predictor of whether a person will experience a mental disorder.
A. low socioeconomic status
B. ethnicity
C. cognitive style
D. gender

A

15. Which of the following statements about the DSM-IV is FALSE?
A. The DSM-IV is a classification of psychological disorders.
B. DSM-IV was introduced in 1994 and revised in 2000.
C. The number of disorders listed in DSM-IV is significantly lower than the number of disorders listed in the first edition of the DSM.
D. The DSM-IV classifies individuals on the basis of five dimensions or axes.

C

16. Mental retardation falls into what axis of disorders?
A. Axis I
B. Axis II
C. Axis III
D. Axis IV

B

17. Maria is a social worker in an urban community mental health center. She has just seen a crisis client who expressed suicidal ideation. After doing a thorough assessment to determine that he needed inpatient care, she sent him to the hospital and must now write her notes about the session. She codes her client's depression on _____.
A. Axis I
B. Axis II
C. Axis III
D. Axis IV

A

18. In the DSM-IV, psychosocial and environmental problems are assessed on ______.
A. Axis I
B. Axis II
C. Axis III
D. Axis IV

D

19. A person's current level of functioning is assessed on ______.
A. Axis I
B. Axis II
C. Axis IV
D. Axis V

D

20. The main controversy surrounding the DSM-IV-TR involves its ______.
A. overly strong behavioral orientation
B. overly strong psychoanalytic orientation
C. overly strong humanistic orientation
D. overly strong reliance on the medical model

D

21. Critics of the medical model of abnormal behavior argue that ADHD reflects a(n) ______.
A. social construct rather than a psychological disorder
B. psychological disorder rather than a social construct
C. example of racial profiling of African-American children
D. biological disorder rather than a psychological disorder

A

22. During a 2005 interview on the Today Show, actor Tom Cruise claimed that psychiatry is a "psuedo science" and that psychological disorders are "problems of living" as opposed to a true mental illness. After reviewing research on this topic, how did the National Institute of Mental Health respond to Cruise's claim?
A. They agreed with Cruise's claim that psychological disorders are "problems of living" as opposed to true mental illnesses.
B. They agreed with Cruise's claim, and as a result, are removing several mental illnesses from the list of disorders in the new edition of the DSM.
C. They expressed a divided opinion on this topic, with psychologists claiming that mental illnesses are "real" disorders and medical doctors claiming that there is weak evidence to support the claim that there is a biological basis to mental illness.
D. They disagreed with Cruise's claim and issued a consensus statement that declared that mental illnesses are real medical conditions that affect millions of Americans.

D

23. Drug companies commonly fund research that focuses on the _______ approach to psychological disorders.
A. sociocultural
B. psychological
C. biological
D. cognitive

C

24. Chad regularly experiences motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts. It is likely that Chad suffers from a(n) _____.
A. mood disorder
B. anxiety disorder
C. personality disorder
D. dissociative disorder

B

25. Which of the following is NOT classified as an anxiety disorder?
A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. Panic disorder
C. Depression
D. Post-traumatic stress disorder

C

26. Although Carol has been experiencing persistent anxiety for the past 6 months, she has been unable to specify the cause or source of her nervous feelings. Carol likely suffers from _____.
A. schizophrenia
B. post-traumatic stress disorder
C. a phobic disorder
D. generalized anxiety disorder

D

27. Individuals who are diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder experience _____. Individuals who are diagnosed with panic disorder experience _____.
A. chronic anxiety / sudden anxiety
B. sudden anxiety / chronic anxiety
C. intermittent anxiety / steady anxiety
D. severe anxiety / minor anxiety

A

28. You are having dinner with your friend Sophia when she experiences a sudden onset of intense terror, without warning and with no specific cause. Sophia would most likely be diagnosed as suffering from ______.
A. borderline personality disorder
B. panic disorder
C. phobic disorder
D. generalized anxiety disorder

B

29. John has sudden attacks of intense fear in which his heart races, he feels faint, and he has trouble catching his breath. During these attacks, he worries that he is going to die. From this description, it sounds like John has _____.
A. schizophrenia
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. panic disorder
D. generalized anxiety disorder

C

30. Which of the following statements about research on the etiology of panic disorder is FALSE?
A. Panic disorder is associated with neurotransmitter problems involving norepinephrine and GABA.
B. Panic disorder may be a consequence of an autonomic nervous system that is predisposed to be overly active.
C. Panic disorder may be associated with a misinterpretation of harmless indicators of physiological arousal.
D. Men are twice as likely as women to be diagnosed with panic disorder.

D

31. A fear becomes a phobia when ______.
A. a doctor diagnoses it as such
B. an individual will go to any length to avoid the object of the fear/phobia
C. a person can specifically identify what they are afraid of
D. a person cannot identify the source of their nervous feelings

B

32. Former NFL coach John Madden had a famous fear of flying that led him to take a bus to all of the games he broadcasted. The fact that he would go to any length to avoid flying suggests that he suffered from ______.
A. generalized anxiety disorder
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. a specific phobia
D. post-traumatic stress disorder

C

33. Individuals who suffer from ______ have an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations.
A. generalized anxiety disorder
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. post-traumatic stress disorder
D. a social phobia

D

34. Which of the following statements about phobias is TRUE?
A. Most phobias begin in middle adulthood.
B. People who suffer from phobic disorders are not consciously aware of the cause or trigger of their anxiety.
C. Most phobias are rational fear reactions.
D. Learning theorists consider phobias to be learned fears.

D

35. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as a(n) ______ disorder.
A. mood
B. personality
C. anxiety
D. dissociative

C

36. The most common compulsion exhibited by individuals who have obsessive-compulsive disorder is excessive ______.
A. checking
B. cleaning
C. counting
D. All of these

D

37. ______ are recurrent thoughts, whereas ______ are recurrent behaviors.
A. Compulsions / obsessions
B. Obsessions / compulsions
C. Delusions / hallucinations
D. Hallucinations / delusions

B

38. Though they can occur independently, _____ frequently accompany obsessions and appear to serve the function of reducing the anxiety created by such disturbing thoughts.
A. manias
B. hallucinations
C. compulsions
D. delusions

C

39. Jillian can't bear to leave her home without washing all the linens and floors, vacuuming the carpets, and organizing everything in her cupboards. Because she knows that her behavior is extreme, she has tried to go to work without doing all these things, but she is overcome with such overwhelming dread that she never makes it all the way to the office. Jillian probably has _____.
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
B. generalized anxiety disorder
C. a phobia
D. panic disorder

A

40. What differentiates people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from those who don't have OCD but may have some tendencies related to OCD, such as experiencing anxiety-provoking thoughts?
A. The ability to ignore or dismiss intrusive thoughts
B. The presence of agoraphobia
C. A history of past sexual abuse
D. Overprotective parents

A

41. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) ______.
A. does not seem to have a genetic component because it does not run in families
B. is linked with high levels of serotonin and dopamine
C. does not seem to be linked with abnormal brain functioning
D. often occurs during a period of life stress

D

42. Randy experienced a horrific childhood. She was physically and verbally abused by her mother and sexually abused by a stepfather. Years later, she began experiencing anxiety symptoms. A diagnosis of _____ would best apply to her situation.
A. generalized anxiety disorder
B. post-traumatic stress disorder
C. phobic disorder
D. panic disorder

B

43. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder?
A. Flashbacks
B. Difficulties with memory and concentration
C. Feelings of apprehension and nervousness
D. Depressed arousal and fatigue

D

44. When Sandra was 18 years old, she was in a serious car accident. Although she made a full recovery from her injuries, she experienced extreme anxiety afterward. Sandra is now very anxious when driving, will not drive near the site of the accident, has nightmares about the accident, and flinches when she goes through intersections. Sandra has symptoms suggestive of ______.
A. generalized anxiety disorder
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. post-traumatic stress disorder
D. panic disorder

C

45. In movies that focus on war (e.g., Born on the Fourth of July, Apocalypse Now, First Blood), soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety, nervousness, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases these soldiers have problems with memory and an inability to experience happiness. These characters have ______.
A. dementia
B. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
C. dysthymia
D. dissociative identity disorder (DID)

B

46. Depression is classified as a(n) _____ disorder.
A. anxiety
B. mood
C. personality
D. dissociative

B

47. Individuals who are diagnosed with depression exhibit _____.
A. cognitive symptoms but not physical symptoms
B. behavioral but not physical symptoms
C. behavioral and physical symptoms but not cognitive symptoms
D. cognitive, behavioral, and physical symptoms

D

48. The leading cause of disability in the United States is ______.
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. panic disorder
C. schizophrenia
D. major depressive disorder

D

49. ______ involves a significant depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least 2 weeks.
A. Dysthymic disorder (DD)
B. Major depressive disorder (MDD)
C. Bipolar disorder
D. Generalized anxiety disorder

B

50. Dysthymic disorder (DD) is a mood disorder that is generally _______ chronic and has ____ symptoms than major depressive disorder (MDD).
A. more / fewer
B. less / more
C. more / more
D. less / fewer

A

51. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of a depressive disorder?
A. Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities
B. Significant weight gain or loss
C. Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
D. Flashbacks and nightmares

D

52. Individuals who are depressed seem to show less neural activity in the ______.
A. amygdala
B. prefrontal cortex
C. hippocampus
D. hypothalamus

B

53. Individuals who are depressed show lower levels of brain activity in ______ and an overactive level of activity in ______.
A. the amygdala / the prefrontal cortex
B. the prefrontal cortex / the amygdala
C. hippocampus / the prefrontal cortex
D. hypothalamus / amygdala

B

54. Depressed people tend to have low levels of which neurotransmitters?
A. Dopamine and GABA
B. GABA and epinephrine
C. Oxytocin and serotonin
D. Serotonin and norepinephrine

D

55. Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would try to study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing he tried seemed to work. Joshua has developed ______.
A. learned helplessness
B. hallucinations
C. compulsions
D. delusions

A

56. Learned helplessness and negative attributional styles are two ways of understanding the _____ factors associated with depression.
A. cognitive
B. psychodynamic
C. sociocultural
D. biological

A

57. Cindy is having difficulty paying her monthly bills. She often just sits and stares at her checkbook, which causes her to feel anxious about the possibility of going bankrupt. Cindy is demonstrating a(n) ______.
A. ruminative coping style
B. inclusive coping style
C. cognitive appraisal coping style
D. selective appraisal coping style

A

58. Which of the following statements about childhood depression is FALSE?
A. Children who develop depression are at risk for a variety of problems, including substance abuse, academic problems, increased physical illness, and increased suicide risk.
B. Parental psychopathology is a risk factor for childhood depression.
C. An estimated 1-2 percent of prepubertal children and 3-8 percent of adolescents experience depression.
D. In order to understand childhood depression, developmental psychopathologists apply knowledge about adult depression to children.

D

59. _______ is a mood disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state.
A. Major depressive disorder (MDD)
B. Dysthymic disorder (DD)
C. Bipolar disorder
D. Generalized anxiety disorder

C

60. Your roommate is acting very strangely. Although she has not slept much in the past few days, she says she is on top of the world. She has cleaned and re-cleaned her closets several times. She also took all her savings and invested it in a questionable financial venture. This period of non-stop activity has lasted for well over a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue she exhibited earlier this semester. Your roommate is exhibiting symptoms of _____.
A. bipolar disorder
B. generalized anxiety disorder
C. panic disorder
D. borderline personality disorder

A

61. Major depressive disorder is ______, whereas bipolar disorder is ______.
A. more common among men / equally common in men and women
B. more common among women / equally common in men and women
C. equally common in men and women / more common among women
D. equally common in men and women / more common among men

B

62. Genetic factors are stronger predictors of ______ than _____.
A. major depressive disorder / bipolar disorder
B. bipolar disorder / major depressive disorder
C. dysthymic disorder / bipolar disorder
D. dysthymic disorder / major depressive disorder

B

63. Suicide is linked with low levels of which neurotransmitter?
A. Dopamine
B. GABA
C. Serotonin
D. Epinephrine

C

64. Approximately ______ percent of individuals who commit suicide are estimated to have a diagnosable mental disorder.
A. 10
B. 25
C. 50
D. 90

D

65. Research on gender differences in suicide show that women are ______ to attempt suicide and that men are ______ to complete suicide.
A. more likely / more likely
B. less likely / more likely
C. less likely / as likely as women
D. as likely as men / less likely

A

66. Jacqueline has been in relentless pursuit of thinness for the past six months. She has been starving herself to reach this goal. Jacqueline is exhibiting symptoms of _____.
A. binge eating disorder
B. anorexia nervosa
C. bulimia nervosa
D. amenorrhea

B

67. Individuals who suffer from anorexia nervosa weigh less than _____ of what is considered normal for age and height and refuse to maintain weight at a healthy level.
A. 65 percent
B. 75 percent
C. 85 percent
D. 90 percent

C

68. ______ has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.
A. Generalized anxiety disorder
B. Schizophrenia
C. Bipolar disorder
D. Anorexia nervosa

D

69. Francine has been suffering from a chronic sore throat, kidney problems, dehydration, gastrointestinal problems, and dental problems. These complications are commonly experienced by individuals who suffer from _____.
A. binge eating disorders
B. anorexia nervosa
C. bulimia nervosa
D. bipolar disorder

C

70. Individuals with bulimia nervosa tend to have _____ of perfectionism and _____ of self-efficacy.
A. high levels / high levels
B. high levels / low levels
C. low levels / high levels
D. low levels / low levels

B

71. Problems in regulating _____ are related to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
A. serotonin
B. epinephrine
C. GABA
D. dopamine

A

72. Unlike obese individuals who do not suffer from binge eating disorder, binge eaters are more likely to _____.
A. consume fatty, high-calorie food
B. stop eating before they are full
C. overvalue their physical appearance, weight, and body shape
D. suffer from diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease

C

73. ______ involves a sudden loss of memory or change in identity.
A. Anxiety disorders
B. Mood disorders
C. Personality disorders
D. Dissociative disorders

D

74. Dissociative disorders often occur in individuals who also show signs of _____.
A. bipolar disorder
B. post-traumatic stress disorder
C. antisocial personality disorder
D. panic disorder

B

75. Abigail suffers from a dissociative disorder. Abigail would likely show lower volume in which of the following brain regions?
A. The frontal cortex and hypothalamus
B. The amygdala and hippocampus
C. The frontal lobe and anterior lobe
D. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior lobe

B

76. Anne, a mother of two young children, developed amnesia, traveled across the country, and assumed a new identity as an accountant. When her husband and children tracked her down several months later, she had no recollection of her earlier life. Anne would likely be diagnosed with ______.
A. borderline personality disorder
B. antisocial personality disorder
C. dissociative identity disorder
D. dissociative fugue

D

77. What statement best describes the relationship between dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?
A. There is no relationship between the two.
B. The two always happen together.
C. Dissociative amnesia is required to also have a dissociative fugue.
D. Dissociative fugue is required to also have dissociative amnesia.

C

78. _____ is the most dramatic but least common dissociative disorder.
A. Dissociative amnesia
B. Dissociative identity disorder
C. Dissociative fugue
D. Schizophrenia

B

79. Which of the following statements about dissociative identity disorder is FALSE?
A. Individuals with dissociative identity disorder have two or more distinct personalities or selves.
B. Each personality has knowledge of the memories, behaviors, and relationships of the other personalities.
C. One personality dominates at a time.
D. Personality shifts usually occur under conditions of distress.

B

80. _____ is a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes.
A. Dysthymic disorder
B. Bipolar disorder
C. Generalized anxiety disorder
D. Schizophrenia

D

81. Frank believes that he is the finest fisherman ever and that, when he is out on the lake, thousands of people are in the surrounding area with binoculars watching his every move in the hopes of discovering his technique. This is an example of _____.
A. a delusion
B. a hallucination
C. misattribution
D. flat affect

A

82. The _____ of schizophrenia are marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function, whereas _____ reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions.
A. positive symptoms / negative symptoms
B. negative symptoms / positive symptoms
C. physical symptoms / psychological symptoms
D. psychological symptoms / physical symptoms

A

83. _____ are sensory experiences in the absence of real stimuli. _____ are false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual's culture.
A. Delusions / Hallucinations
B. Hallucinations / Delusions
C. Referential thoughts / Catatonic thoughts
D. Catatonic thoughts / Referential thoughts

B

84. Which of the following is NOT considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
A. Hallucinations
B. Delusions
C. Referential thinking
D. Flat affect

D

85. In the film A Beautiful Mind, John Nash hears and sees people who are not actually there. These sensations are examples of _____.
A. hallucinations
B. delusions
C. referential thinking
D. catatonia

A

86. Ted has blatant disregard for the well-being of others. He has spent his life in and out of prison for violent crimes. Ted would most likely be diagnosed with which type of personality disorder?
A. Borderline
B. Narcissistic
C. Antisocial
D. Schizoid

C

87. All of the following are symptoms of borderline personality disorder EXCEPT ______.
A. chronic feelings of emptiness
B. paranoia
C. hallucinations
D. difficulty controlling anger

C

88. ______ is characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in various contexts.
A. Schizophrenia
B. Dissociative identity disorder
C. Antisocial personality disorder
D. Borderline personality disorder

D

89. In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate?
A. College students are very susceptible to mental health issues.
B. Doctors are always correct in their diagnosis of schizophrenia.
C. Being labeled with a mental disorder creates a self-fulfilling prophecy that changes the way mental health professionals evaluate and treat you.
D. If you are treated for schizophrenia at an early age, you are likely to recover fully.

C

90. The Americans with Disabilities Act _____.
A. makes it illegal to hold social stigmas against those with mental disorders
B. makes it illegal to discriminate against a person with a disorder in the workplace
C. was designed to reduce the cultural stereotypes of people with mental disorders
D. was designed to provide additional healthcare coverage to people with mental disorders.

B

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