The use of strategies to reach a goal in which the solution is not immediately obvious because important information is missing
In problem solving, a description of the situation at the beginning of a problem
In problem solving, the state reached when the problem is solved
In problem solving, the restrictions that make it difficult to proceed from the initial state to the goal state
The cognitive process of going beyond the
information given, so that one can reach a goal such as a solution, a decision, or a belief
In problem solving, the superficial
content of the problem to be solved
In problem solving, the abstract, underlying core of a problem
A problem-solving strategy in which a person first divides the problem into a num- ber of subproblems and then tries to reduce the dif- ference between the initial state and the goal state for each subproblem.
The smaller problems that a person creates by subdividing a target problem, in order to facilitate problem solving
A computer system that resem- bles human performance on a specific cognitive task.
General problem solver
A computer program whose basic problem-solving strategy is means-ends analysis. The goal of the GPS is to mimic normal human problem solving.
Problems in which the goal is not obvious.
In problem solving, a strategy of choosing—at each choice point—the alternative that seems to lead most directly toward the goal
The kind of cognitive process- ing that emphasizes the importance of information from the stimuli registered on sensory receptors.
In problem solving, the mental representation of a problem, based on the information provided in the problem and one's own previous experience.
In problem solving, a chart that shows all possible combinations of items.
hierarchical tree diagram
In problem solving, a figure that uses a tree-like structure to specify various pos- sible options in a problem.
An approach that examines how the ability to solve a problem is tied to the specific context in which a person learned to solve that problem
A principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied.
The kind of cognitive processing that emphasizes the influence of concepts, expectations, and memory.
Consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area, typically achieved by deliberate practice for at least 10 years
A type of cognitive processing in which a person can handle many signals at the same time
A type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step
A mental rut or mindless rigidity that blocks
effective problem solving
The belief that one has a certain amount of intelligence and other skills, so that no amount of effort will improve performance.
The belief that one has a certain amount of intelligence and other skills, so that no amount of effort will improve performance
In problem solving, a phenomenon in which top-down processing is overactive; the functions or uses assigned to objects tend to remain fixed or stable.
The organized, widely shared set of beliefs about the characteristics of females and males. Gender stereotypes may be partially accurate, but they do not apply to every person of the specified gender
A source of anxiety when a person's membership in a group is hampered by a negative stereotype; this anxiety produces performance problems
A method that will always produce a solution to the problem, although the process may be inefficient
In semantic memory, the specific type of algorithm, trying all possible answers, using a specified system
A general strategy that usually produces a correct solution, for example, in language, problem solving, and decision making.
In problem solving, the approach that uses a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help solve a new one
In problemsolving, problems with the same underlying structures and solutions, but with different specific details
A problem that initially seems impossible to solve, but a correct alternative suddenly enters a person's mind.
A problem that is solved gradually, using memory, reasoning skills, and a routine set of strategies
A situation in which people are initially unsuccessful in solving a problem, but they become more likely to solve the problem after taking a break, rather than working without interruption
In problem solving, the process of finding a solution that is novel, high quality, and useful
A measurement of creativity in terms of the number of varied responses made to each test item.
investment theory of creativity
A theory in which the essential attributes of creativity are intelligence, knowledge, motivation, an encouraging environment, an appropriate thinking style, and an appropriate personality.
The motivation to work on a task for its own sake, because it is interesting, exciting, or personally challenging
The motivation to work on a task in order to earn a promised reward or to win a competition.