psychsmart final

Created by tcrowe22 

Upgrade to
remove ads

154 terms · psychsmart chapter 6, 10, and 12

which of the following sequences best reflect the order in which memory processes occur from first to last?

encoding, storage, and retrieval

When we use the term "remembering" in day-to-day life, we are making reference to the memory process of

retrieval

which of the follwoing is NOT one of the three memory processes identified at the beginning of text's discussion of memory?

sensation

which of the following sequences best reflect the order of stages in the three-system model of memory?

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between iconic and echoic memory, on the one hand, and sensory, on the other?

iconic and echoic memory are different types of sensory memory

Sensory memory has all of the follwoing characteristics EXCEPT

the capacity is about seven plus or minus two chinks

how does short-term memory differ afrom sensory memory

Both A and B

Which of the following memory processes is LEAST likely involved when you look up a phone number, then turn to dial it?

reconstruction

why may children be particularly unreliable eyewitnesses?

Both A and B

A multiple choice question is a ___ test of memory.

recognition

Alzheimer's Disease is one of the top ___ causes of death among adults in the United States.

Five

____ is the process of grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit in order to store more information in ___.

Chunking; short-term memory

Omar cannot remember the events that led up to the motorcycle that injured his brain. Omar's amnesia is best described as___

retrograde

Nana is taking a Spanish final at the end of the spring semester. Her problem is that the French vocabulary word's she learned the semester before keeps getting in the way, causing her to forget Spanish words. Nana is experiencing ____interference.

proactive

"What's your social?" the associate asks over the phone. "one, six, four..." you begin. After a brief pause, you continue, "seventry-two...sixteen thrity-eight." To ease the burden ont he associate's short-term memory , you are giving the number in ____ rather than as individual digits.

chunks

Roberto just met a women he feels attracted to and keeps saying her name over and over to himself to make sure he doesn't forget it. He is using ___ to keep this women's name in his ____ memory.

maintenance rehearsal; short-term

Previous exposure to a stimulus that later makes it easier to recall related information even when there is no conscious memory of the exposure is called ___

priming

An essay question is a ____ test of memory?

recall

The theories of forgetting described in your text may be likened to the difficulties we might face in trying to find an old file ont he computer. Which theory is incorrectly likened to a corresponding file-finding difficulty?

None of these is incorrectly describied.

Which theory of forgettign is CORRECTLY matched with its description?

decay-information is lost over time as a result of nonuse

Cole knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of a(n) ____ memory.

semantic

We look upa number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?

information lasts only 15-20 seconds in short-term memory

Levels-of-processign theory suggests that shallow processes is to deep processing as ____ is to ____.

Both A and B

Competing a rental application, Pippa finds she can't recall oneof her previous addresses, as she's had several addresses since. Pippa is experiencing ____ interference.

retroactive

Arturo studies by rewriting and rereadign his class notes over and over again; this process is somewhat analogous to ____ rehearsal.

maintenance

Estelle remembers the night she was mugged and brutally beaten. This memory probably involves not only her hippocampus but also her?

amygdale

Knowing how to shoot a basketball is an example of a(n) _____ memory.

procedural

The idea that disturbing memories may be suppressed is derived from____.

Freud's psychoanalytic theory

In ____ interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently.

proactive

The concept of working memory represtents a contemporary conceptualization of ____ memory.

short-term

The 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Princess Diana's death, the 1986 Challenger explosion. People's memores for the moment in which they learned of these events are termed ____ memories.

flashbulb

Rhonda can't remember anyhting about the first several minutes immediately following a car crash in which she was injured. Rhonda is experiencing ____ amnesia.

anterograde

Melinda is computing the correlation coeffiecient between scores on measure of eyewitness confidence and scores on a measure of eyewitness accuracy. What sort of coefficient do you think she'll find?

a weak one

Middle-aged Mrs. Lovett is recalling her first Christmas as a young newly wed at her in-laws' Wyoming ranch. This is a(n) ____ memory.

episodic

your textbook lists several techniques for improving memory. Which of the following is NOT included?

use interference

Continuign to study and rehearse material after you think you already know it

is an effective strategy called overlearning

which of the follwoing expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?

about seven plus or minus two chunks

Schemas influence the way information is

all of these

According to levels-of-processing theory, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests?

Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she has learned in other classes

One's culture is most likely to influence

the strategies one uses to recall information for long-term memory

An online personality test yields different scores each time Jenny takes it. The test is

not reliable

Shauntel tells people that her coworker Mary dislikes her; if she were honest, though, Shauntel would realize that it is actually she who dislikes Mary. Which defense mechanism is she using?

projection

The TAT and Rorschach are ___ tests of personality.

projective

How might we critize Freud's psychodynamic theory, given the values contemporary psychological science?

Both A and B

Which term indicates the abilty of a test to meausre what it actually is supposed to measure?

validity

Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high self-

efficacy

Dr. Plater believes that one's personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past. Dr. Plater endorses the _________ approach to personality

learning

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding self-esteem?

Both A and B are true

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the id is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

pleasure principle

Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of human nature-that humans are essentially "good"?

humanistic

A psychological test is reliable when it

yields consistent measurements.

According to Carl Rogers, people experience anxiety when

the self-concept is at odds with their experience.

Which trait theorist suggested that there are sixteen pairs of source traits that represent the basic dimensions of personality?

Cattell

___________ is often considered the first feminist psychologist.

Karen Horney

In positing the collective unconscious, Jung may be seen as pursuing a goal similar to that of contemporary evolutionary psychologists. In what way?

He was attempting to explain phenomena universal across cultures.

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which Freud's personality structures develop during infancy and childhood, from first to last?

id ego superego

According to Freud, the key to personality lies in

unconscious conflicts.

In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a(n)

defense mechanism.

Dr. Ainsworth believes that one's personality largely reflects internal, unconscious forces. Dr. Ainsworth appears to take a(n) ___________ approach to personality.

psychodynamic

As compared to a Skinnerian learning theory approach to personality, the social cognitive approach places __________ emphasis on ____________.

more; the interaction between the individual and the environment

According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development?

phallic

Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-

actualization.

Inkblot is to picture as ________ is to _______.

Rorschach; TAT

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, while on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as

reaction formation.

In Freud's theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed

fixations

Karen Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual's personality was that person's

relationship with his/her parents.

Which of the following psychologists is NOT associated with the psychodynamic perspective on personality?

All these are associated with the psychodynamic perspective.

In general, how does neo-Freudian thought differ from Freud's original theory?

Both B and C

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the superego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

conscience

Humanistic approaches in psychology have been most influential in

therapeutic settings.

Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the key dimensions necessary to explain the consistencies in individuals' behavior. Dr. Montgomery is a(n) _________ theorist.

trait

As compared to a Skinnerian learning theory approach to personality, the social cognitive approach places __________ emphasis on ____________.

more; the interaction between the individual and the environment

Liz yells at her dog after getting a test back that she failed. Which defense mechanism is she using?

displacement

Which of the following sequences indicates the order of the first three stages in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, from first to last?

oral anal phallic

The best-known projective test of personality is the

Rorschach

A graduate student is using a statistical software package to identify the basic patterns underlying the many relationships among a large number of variables. She is performing _________ analysis.

factor

Which of the following is NOT identified as a disadvantage of the trait approach to personality?

Trait approaches do not allow us to compare one person with another.

Which of the following is NOT one of the "Big Five" personality dimensions?

psychoticism

Liz has been given a card with an inkblot on it and is asked "What does this look like to you?" It is most likely that Liz is taking a(n) __________ personality test.

All of these

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the ego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

reality principle

One of the main proponents of the social cognitive approach to personality is

Bandura.

Which of the following statements identify criticisms leveled against the METHODOLOGICAL basis of Freud's psychodynamic theory of personality?

Both A and B

Which approach to personality emphasizes the role played by self-efficacy?

Bandura's social cognitive approach

Dr. Robinson is a strict Skinnerian learning theorist. Most likely, she believes that the consistency in an individual's behavior across situations is

somewhat uninteresting.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimately, it stems from ________ theory.

Jungian

Which of the following is NOT one of the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts?

Cattell

"Ben's nasty; he's disgusting," says Renee; really, Renee secretly finds Ben sexy. Which defense mechanism is she using?

reaction formation

What do the id and the superego have in common?

They are both unrealistic.

In positing the collective unconscious, Jung may be seen as pursuing a goal similar to that of contemporary evolutionary psychologists. In what way?

He was attempting to explain phenomena universal across cultures.

Karen Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual's personality was that person's

relationship with his/her parents.

The "Big Five" personality dimensions demonstrate:

Both A and B

__________ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that lend stability and consistency to an individual's behavior and serve to differentiate one individual from another.

Personality

________ trait is to source trait as Allport is to _________.

Central; Cattell

Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan pours himself into his studies. Which defense mechanism is he using?

sublimation

In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a(n)

defense mechanism.

What makes one person different from another? Which theorist below is CORRECTLY matched to a potential response to this question?

All these are correctly matched.

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the superego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

conscience

Probably the most basic or fundamental of the defense mechanisms is that of

repression.

In Freud's theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed

fixations

The "Big Five": what am I talking about?

five key personality factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, castration anxiety occurs in young boys because they fear that

their fathers might castrate them, because they are rivals for their mothers' attention.

According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development?

phallic

During the phallic stage of Freud's theory, children develop a sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and hostility toward the same-sex parent. This complex psychological phenomenon is known as

an Oedipus complex.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding Allport's trait categories?

Not everyone possesses cardinal traits.

Which of the following psychologists is NOT associated with the psychodynamic perspective on personality?

All these are associated with the psychodynamic perspective.

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the id is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

pleasure principle

Which trait theorist used factor analysis to determine that there are three dimensions of personality that he called extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism?

Eysenck

Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her students' math assignments. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students' self-

efficacy.

Which of the following is NOT identified as a disadvantage of the trait approach to personality?

Trait approaches do not allow us to compare one person with another.

The preconscious in Freud's theory is most nearly analogous to ________ memory in the three-stage model of memory described in your text.

long-term

Which of the following Freudian notions appears to have been supported in subsequent empirical research?

Unconscious processes contribute importantly to thought and behavior.

Which of the following sequences best reflects the extent to which Freud's personality structures operate consciously, from LEAST conscious to MOST conscious?

id superego ego

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the trait approach to personality?

All trait approaches are basically the same.

According to _______, parents can facilitate their children's development by

Horney; providing consistently and adequately for their needs.

Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges Allport's trait categories from the MOST SPECIFIC to the BROADEST?

secondary central cardinal

Which of the following statements CORRECTLY identifies/identify potential shortcomings of Freud's theory of psychosexual development?

Both B and C

Which neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorist is CORRECTLY matched with a key concept?

None of these is correctly matched.

Which trait theorist suggested that there are three fundamental categories of traits that he called cardinal, central, and secondary?

Allport

An all-consuming need for power is sometimes known as Machiavellianism. Because the trait is named in his honor, it would be reasonable to suppose that the need for power was a(n) ________ trait for the Italian prince.

cardinal

The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only with Sigmund Freud but also with

Anna Freud.

Which trait theorist suggested that there are sixteen pairs of source traits that represent the basic dimensions of personality?

Cattell

The five stages that are identified by particular pleasures experienced by the individual are known as

Freud's psychosexual stages of development.

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, while on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as

reaction formation.

Which of the following is NOT one of Eysenck's basic personality dimensions?

agreeableness

According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the ego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms?

reality principle

According to Freud, the key to personality lies in

unconscious conflicts.

In general, how does neo-Freudian thought differ from Freud's original theory?

Both B and C

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding self-esteem?

Both A and B are true.

Which of the following is NOT one of the "Big Five" personality dimensions?

psychoticism

According to your text, the major perspectives on abnormality

All of these

Psychoanalytic treatment involves

examining early childhood experiences.

"Some people are perfect! Why can't I be perfect? Why is everything I do wrong?" A ________ therapist might encourage a client to change such irrational thoughts.

cognitive

Which therapist is correctly labeled with the perspective he or she seems to take?

Dr. Coates primarily prescribes psychotropic drugs. -biomedical

The purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to provide

descriptions of disorders.

Which of the following is NOT one of the major types of anxiety disorder?

bipolar disorder

Brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. Brett might be diagnosed with ________ disorder.

phobic

The potential biological bases of anxiety disorders include

Both A and B

Which of the following is NOT one of the features of schizophrenia?

All of these are characteristic of schizophrenia

Which personality disorder is CORRECTLY matched with a brief description?

borderline personality-reliance on relationships to define oneself

Carrie is dramatic and emotionally volatile. She rapidly forms intense relationships that seem to blow up or fall apart just as quickly. Although she tends to distrust others, she also needs their attention. Carrie might be diagnosed with _______ personality disorder.

borderline

Which of the following approaches to psychotherapy is CORRECTLY matched with its description?

behavioral approach-classical and operant conditioning principles are used to change people's behavior.

According to a behavior therapist, how might psychological disorders be treated most effectively?

The client should learn new behaviors.

Using a(n) _________ approach, therapists blend a variety of techniques to treat an individual's disorder.

eclectic

Tricyclic drugs, MAO inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are examples of which class of drugs?

antidepressants

Ida has bipolar disorder. Most likely, she would be prescribed

lithium for the manic phase, as well as an antidepressant for the depressive phase

Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences of the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?

sudden death

Community psychology came of age in the _____; its aim was to __________ the incidence of psychological disorders.

1960s; prevent

Psychologists refer to a feeling of apprehension and tension as

anxiety

Which of the following potential explanations of anxiety disorders is CORRECTLY matched with the perspective it reflects?

Neither is correctly matched

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set