MET 1010: Chapter Two

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55 terms · Intro to Atmosphere

"A good absorber of a given wavelength is also a good emitter of that wavelength." This is a statement of:

Kirchhoff's law.

A change of one degree on the Celsius scale is ________ a change of one degree on the Fahrenheit scale.

larger than

A red shirt:

selectively scatters red wavelengths of visible light and absorbs the rest.

According to Wein's displacement law, the wavelength at which maximum radiation occurs is:

inversely proportional to the temperature.

An increase in albedo would be accompanied by a ______ in radiative equilibrium temperature.

decrease

Charged particles from the sun that travel through space at high speeds are called,

plasma, or solar winds/flares.

Clouds ______ infrared radiation and ______ visible radiation.

absorb, reflect

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers is called:

visible light.

Energy of motion is also known as:

kinetic energy.

Evaporation is a ________ process.

cooling

Heat is energy in the process of being transferred from:

one object to another because of the difference in temperature between them.

How do red light and blue light differ?

Red wavelengths are much longer than blue wavelengths.

How much radiant energy will an object emit if its temperature is at absolute zero?

None.

If the amount of energy lost by the earth to space each year were not approximately equal to that received,

the average surface temperature would change.

If the average temperature of the sun increased, the wavelength of peak solar emission would:

decrease.

If the average surface temperature were to increase, the amount of radiation emitted from the earth's surface would ______, and the wavelength of peak emission would shift toward ______ wavelengths.

increase, shorter

If the temperature of the air is said to be at absolute zero, one might conclude that:

the molecules contain a minimum amount of energy.

If you want to keep an object cool while exposed to direct sunlight,

wrap it in aluminum foil with the shiny side facing outward.

In the earth's upper atmosphere, visible light given off by excited atoms and molecules produces:

an aurora.

Most of the radiation emitted by a human body is in the form of:

infrared radiation.

Often before sunrise on a clear, calm, cold morning, ice (frost) can be seen on the tops of parked cars, even when the air temperature is above freezing. This condition happens because the tops of the cars are cooling by:

radiation.

On average, about what percentage of solar energy that strikes the outer atmosphere eventually reachers the earth's surface?

50 percent.

Rising air cools by the process of:

expansion.

Sinking air warms by the process of:

compression.

Snow will usually melt on the roof of a home that is a:

good radiator of heat.

Solar radiation reaches the earth's surface as:

visible light (but also ultraviolet light and infrared light).

Sunlight passes through a thicker portion of the atmosphere at:

sunrise and sunset.

Sunlight that bounces off a surface is said to be ______ from the surface.

reflected

Suppose you are outside in very cold temperatures, wearing a winter coat that is effective at keeping you warm. Which of the following is true?

The coat is the source of heat that keeps you warm, the coat prevents your body's heat from escaping to the surrounding

The albedo of the earth's surface is only about 4 percent, yet the combined albedo of the earth and the atmosphere is about 30 percent. Which set of conditions BEST explains why?

High albedo of clouds, low albedo of water.

The amount of heat energy required to bring about a small change in temperature is called the:

specific heat.

The atmospheric greenhouse effect is produced mainly by the:

absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere.

The blueness of the sky is mainly due to:

the scattering of shorter wavelengths of sunlight by air molecules.

The change of state of ice into water vapor is known as:

sublimation.

The cold feeling that you experience after leaving a swimming pool on a hot, dry, summer day represents heat transport by:

latent heat.

The earth emits radiation with the greatest intensity at:

infrared wavelengths.

The earth's radiation is often referred to as ______ radiation, while the sun's radiation is often referred to as ______ radiation.

longwave, shortwave

The earth's radiative equilibrium temperature is:

the temperature at which the earth is absorbing solar radiation and emitting infrared radiation at equal rates.

The heat energy released when water vapor changes to a liquid is called:

latent heat.

The major process that warms the lower atmosphere is:

the earth's radiation of infrared energy.

The processes of condensation and freezing:

both release sensible heat into the environment.

The proper order from shortest to longest wavelengths is:

ultraviolet, visible light, infrared.

The sun emits a maximum amount of radiation at wavelengths near ______, while the the earth emits maximum radiation near wavelengths of ______.

0.5 micrometers (visible light), 10 micrometers (infrared)

The sun emits it greatest intensity of radiation in:

the visible region of the spectrum.

The temperature of a rising parcel:

cools as its molecules expand in less dense air.

The term "latent" means:

hidden, or stored.

The transfer of heat by molecule-to-molecule contact is:

conduction.

What is released as sensible heat during the formation of clouds?

Latent heat of condensation.

When a plate of hot food is left on the table for a while, it cools by:

radiation.

When water changes from a liquid to a vapor, we call this process:

evaporation.

Which of the following determine the kind (wavelength) and amount of radiation that an object emits?

Temperature.

Which of the following has a wavelength shorter than that of violet light?

Ultraviolet radiation.

Which of the following is the poorest conductor of heat?

Still air.

Which of the following provides a measure of the average speed of air molecules?

Temperature.

Without the atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature would be:

lower than at present.

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