MET 1010: Chapter Three

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Intro to Atmosphere

A radiation inversion is most commonly observed:

just above the ground.

Although the polar regions radiate away more heat energy than they receive by insolation in the course of a year, they are prevented from becoming progressively colder each year by:

the circulation of heat by the atmosphere and the oceans.

An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is that:

there is little water vapor in the air to absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation.

At the North Pole the sun will rise above the horizon on ______ and set below the horizon on ______.

the vernal equinox (March 20), the autumnal equinox (September 22)

At what time during a 24-hour day would a radiation temperature inversion best be developed?

At sunrise.

Considering each hemisphere as a whole, seasonal temperature variation in the Southern Hemisphere is ______ that in the Northern Hemisphere.

opposite

During an equinox,

the sun is directly above the equator, and day and night are of equal length everywhere but the poles.

During summer near the North Pole, the sun is above the horizon ______ in the mid-latitudes.

on the vernal equinox (March 20)

During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several meters above the ground occurs on a:

clear, calm day.

During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere, the "land of the midnight sun" would be found:

in high latitudes.

During the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere,

the day is less than 12 hours long and is increasing with each passing day.

Ideal conditions for a strong radiation inversion are:

calm air, long night, and dry, dust-free air.

In July, at middle latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,

the day is more than 12 hours long and is decreasing with each passing day.

In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ______ than the air above during the night and ______ than the air above during the day.

cooler, warmer

In meteorology, the word insolation refers to:

incoming solar radiation.

In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs:

in the afternoon around 2-5 PM local time.

In summer, humid regions typically have ______ daily temperature ranges and ______ maximum temperatures than drier regions.

smaller, lower

In the Northern Hemisphere, which of the following days has the fewest hours of daylight?

Winter solstice (December 21).

In the Northern Hemisphere, the number of hours of daylight begins to shorten after the:

summer solstice.

Incoming solar radiation in middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer because of:

the tilt of the earth on its axis.

Lines connecting points of equal temperature are called:

isotherms.

Longer days are generally associated with:

warmer weather.

More solar radiation is received:

at the top of the atmosphere.

On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by which process?

Radiation.

On the summer solstice, the altitude of the noonday sun is highest:

above the middle latitudes.

Over the earth as a whole, one would expect to observe the smallest variation in temperature from day to day and from month to month:

on a small island near the equator.

Radiational cooling typically occurs:

at night (once the sun sets and the amount of outgoing energy is greater than incoming energy).

Suppose yesterday morning you noticed ice crystals (frost) on the grass, yet the minimum temperature reported in the newspaper was only 35°F. The most likely reason for this apparent discrepancy is that:

temperature reading are taken in instrument shelters more than 5 feet above the ground.

The annual variation of the earth-sun distance is ______ to seasonal weather changes.

irrelevant

The deepest radiation inversion would be observed:

in polar regions in winter.

The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5° with respect to the plane of its orbit around the sun. If the amount of tilt were increased to 40°, we would expect in middle latitudes:

hotter summer and colder winter.

The lag in daily temperature refers to the time lag between:

time of maximum solar radiation and the time of maximum temperature.

The largest annual ranges of temperature are found:

at polar latitudes over land.

The latitude at which there is a yearly balance between incoming and outgoing radiation is:

about 37 degrees.

The lowest temperature is usually observed:

near sunrise.

The main reason(s) for warm summers in middle latitudes is that:

the sun is higher and the days are longer.

The maximum in daytime surface temperatures typically occurs ______ the earth receives its most intense solar radiation.

after

The primary cause of radiation inversion is:

infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface.

The sun is directly overhead at Mexico City (latitude 19°N):

twice a year.

The wind chill factor:

relates body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind.

Two objects, A and B, have the same mass but the specific heat of A is larger than B. If both objects absorb equal amounts of energy,

B's temperature will rise faster than A's.

Water heats up ______ and cools of ______ than land.

more slowly, more slowly

When it is January and winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is ______ and ______ in the Southern Hemisphere.

January, summer

Where are the days and nights of equal length all year long?

The equator.

Which latitude below would experience the fewest hours of daylight on Dec. 22?

60°N (high latitudes).

Which of the following can be used as a method of protecting an orchard from damaging low temperatures during a radiation inversion?

Orchard heaters, wind machines, and irrigation (all of the above).

Which of the following is NOT a reason why water warms and cools much more slowly than land?

It takes more heat to raise the temperature of a given amount of soil 1°C than it does to raise the temperature of water 1°C.

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