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Introduction To Maternity & Pediatric Nursing edition 5 --based on chapters 3

Age of viability

20 weeks of gestation

amniotic sac

bag of waters

autosome

body chromosomes

chorion

develops from the trophoblast and evelops the amnion, embryo, and yolk sac

decidua

the part of the mucous membrane lining the uterus that in higher placental mammals undergoes special modifications in preparation for and during pregnancy and is cast off at parturition, being made up in the human of a part lining the uterus, a part enveloping the embryo, and a part participating with the chorion in the formation of the placenta

diploid

the 46 chromosomes in a body cell

dizygotic

twins, fraternal twins, may or may not be of the same sex and develop from two separate ova fertilized by two seperate sperm

fertilization

when the sperm and ova unite

gametogenesis

is a process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.

germ layers

After implantation the zygote in the blastocyst stage transforms its embryonic disc into three primary germ layers known as ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

haploid

23 chromosomes per cell

monozygotic

twins, often called identical twins, are genetically identical, are of the same sex, and look a like, because they develop from a single fertilized ovum

oogenesis

The process of mitosis in the ovum

placenta

afterbirth

spermatogensis

The process of mitosis in the sperm

teratogens

Any substance, agent, or process that interferes with normal prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus.

Wharton's jelly

covers and cushions the cord vessels and keeps the three vessels seperated

DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid

programs a genetic code into the nucleus of the cell.

Pairs

Chromosomes begin in ___________?

46, 22, 1

Each body cell contains ___ chromosomes, made up of ___ autosomes and __ pair of sex chromosomes that determines the sex of the fetus.

cell division

What is the basis of human growth and regeneration>

teratogens

During prenatal development environmental factors (also called ___________) can have a determental affect on the growing cells of the fetus.

nucleus

In what part of the cell does division begin (which also contains the gene-bearing chromosomes)?

2

How many different types of cell division are there?

mitosis

One type of cell division in which a continuious process by which the body grows and develops and dead body cells are replaced is called _________? (In this type each daughter cell contains the same amount of chromosomes as the parent cell)

meiosis

In this type of cell division the reproductive cells undergo two sequential divisions. The number of chromosomes in each cell is reduced to half (23 per) and each having only one sex chromosome. Upon fertilization of the sperm and ova (each having 23 cells) they unite to form one cell having 46 chormosomes and traits are inherited from both the father and mother.

fertilization

Occurs when a sperm penetrates an ovum and unites with it, restoring the total number of chromosomes to 46. This usually occurs in the outer third of the fallopian tube, near the ovary.

5

Within how many minutes after intercourse can the sperm reach the fallopian tubes?

24

How many hours can the mature ovum survive after ovulation?

5

After entering the cervix how many days can the sperm survive to fertilize the ovum?

5

How many days before ovulation can pregancy occur after intercourse?

sex

The ______ of human offspring is determined at fertilization?

sperm

What can carry an X or Y chormosome?

XX

What two types of chromosomes are requried to cause the sex of the child to be female?

male

If the sperm that fertilizies the egg has XY what will be the sex of the child?

pH, estrogen

What two levels in the female reproductive tract can effect the outcome of the sex of a child?

gene

A _____ is a segment of the DNA chain.

dominant, recessive

The ______ traits usually overpower the _______ traits and are passed on to the offspring

50

If one parent only carries the dominant trait what percentage of the offspring will inherit that trait?

both, recessive

If _______ parents carry a ________ trait it is likely that one of the offspring will display that trait.

zygote

The ________ is the cell formed by the union of the sperm and the ovum, and it is transported through the fallopian tube and into the uterus.

mitotic

During transport through the fallopian tubes the zygote undergoes rapid ________ division (or cleavage).

2

How many cells does cleavage begin with that subdivide into four and then into eight?

blastomere

The zygote is called a ___________ once it has divided into eight cells. (The size has not changed of the zygote itself, rather the divided cells are smaller in size)

morula

Once a blastomere has become a solid ball it is called a _______?

third

The morula enters the uterus on the ______ day and floats there for another 2 to 4 days. The cells form a cavity and two distinct layers evlove.

blastocyst

The inner layer is a solid mass of cells called a __________, which develops into the embryo and embronic membranes.

trophoblast

The outter layer, called the ________, develops into the chorion.

tubal ectopic

When a zygote does not move through the fallopian tube and instead becomes implanted into the lining of the tube, this results in a _______ __________ pregnancy?

upper, posterior

The zygote normally implants in the _______ section of the _________ uterine wall.

decidua basalis

What gives rise to the maternal part of the placenta?

chorion

What thick membrane with fingerlike projections (villi) on its outermost surface develops from the trophoblast and evelops the amnion, embryo, and yolk sac?

embryonic, fetal

The villi immediately below the embryo extend into the decidua basalis on the uterine wall and form the _______/_________ portion of the placenta.

amnion

The _________ is the second membrane and is a thin structure that envelops and protects the embryo. It forms the boundaries of the amniotic cavity, and its outer aspect meets the inner aspect of the chorion.

amniotic sac

The combination of the chorion and amnion together form an _____ ____ filled with fluid that permits the embryo to float freely.

clear

What color is amniotic fluid?

yes

Does amniotic fluid have an odor?

vernix, lanugo

What two items does the amniotic fluid usually contain?

Vernix

Fetal skin covering

Lanugo

Fetal hair on skin

30 mL

How much amniotic fluid is usually present at 10 weeks?

350 mL

How much amniotic fluid is usually present at 20 weeks?

1000 mL

How much amniotic fluid is usually present at 37 weeks?

400 mL

During the latter portion of pregnancy how much amniotic fluid does the fetus usually swallow per day? (It is then excreted back into the fluid)

temperature, skin, symmetrical, movement, cushions

Name five functions of the amniotic fluid? Maintains an even _______; prevents the sac from adhering to the fetal _____; allows __________ growth; allows buoyancy and fetal _______: ______ and protects the fetus and umbilical cord from injury

yolk sac

What forms on the ninth day after fertilization in the blastocyst?

red blood cells

The yolk sac only functions during embryonic life and initates the production of ____ ______ ______.

liver

The function of the yolk sac last for about six weeks until the embryonic _____ takes over.

umbilical

The ________ cord encompasses the yolk sac, and the yolk sac degenerates.

ectoderm

Outer layer of skin; oil glands and hair follicles of skin; nails and hair; external sense organs; mucous membrane of mouth and anus

mesoderm

true skin; skeleton; bone and cartilage; connective tissue; muscles; blood and blood vessels; kidneys and gonads

endoderm

linging of trachea; pharynx; and bronchi; lining of digestive tract; lining of bladder and urethra

zygote, embryo, fetus

There basic stages characterize prenatal development:

embryonic stage

The second to eighth week of development (the infant is called an embryo)

fetus

From the ninth week till birth the developing infant is called a _____

38, 40

The fetus is considered full term at ___ to ____ weeks

Placenta (afterbirth)

Is a temporary organ for fetal respiration, nutrition, and excretion. It also functions as an endocrine gland.

placental membrane

Provides some protection but is not a barrier to most substances ingested by the mother.

progesterone, estrogen, hCG, hPL

Four hormones produced by the placenta:

1) Maintains uterine lining for implantation of the zygote; 2) Reduces unterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion; 3) Prepares the glands of the breast for lactation; 4) Stimulates testes to produce testosterone, which aids the male fetus in developing the reproductive tract

What are the four functions of progesterone during pregnancy?

1) Stimulates uterine growth; 2) Increases the blood flow to uterine vessels; 3) Stimulates development of the breast ducts to prepare for lactation

Estrogen has three important functions during pregnancy:

1) Increased skin pigmentation, "mask of pregnancy" 2) Vascular changes in the skin and the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth; 3) Increased salivation

Effects of estrogen that are not related directly to pregnancy are:

hCG

What is the "signal" sent to the corpus luteum that conception has occured?

hCG

Causes the corpus luteum to persist and to continue the production of estrogen and progesterone to sustain pregnancy

at implantation

When is hCG detectable in maternal blood?

hPL (or hCS)

Causes decreased insulin sensitivity and utilization of glucose by the mother.

umbilical cord

What is the lifeline between mother and fetus?

2,1

_____ artery(ies) carry blood away from the fetus, and ____ vein(s) returns blood to fetus.

22

The normal length of the umbilical cord is usually about ___ inches.

center

The umbilical cord is usually inserted near the _____ of the placenta.

AVA (The name of a woman -- artery -vein-artery)

What is the easy method used to remember the amount of arteries and veins in the umbilical cord?

Four

How many sperm develop from one spermatocyte?

4 weeks of gestation

Circulation of blood through the placenta to the fetus is well established after how many weeks of gestation?

Ductus venosus

Which fetal circulatory shunt diverts some blood away from the livers as it returns from the placenta?

Foramen ovale

Which fetal circulatory shunt diverts most blood from the right atrium directly to the left atrium, rather than circulating it to the lungs?

Ductus arteriosus

Which fetal circulatory shunt diverts most blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta?

Umbilical vein

Oxygenated blood enters the fetal body through the which vein?

Portal sinus

Half of the oxygenated blood goes to the liver through the end of the umbilical vein which is also known as what?

Ductus venosus

The remainder of the blood goes to the inferior vena cava through which fetal circulatory shut?

Foramen ovale

Blood in the inferior vena cava enters the right atrium when most passes directly into the left atrium through which fetal circulatory shut?

Ductus arteriosus

A small amount of blood is pumped to the lungs by the right ventricle. The rest of the blood from the right ventricle joins that from the left ventricle through which fetal circulatory shut?

Umbilical arteries.

Blood containing waste products is returned to the placenta through what arteries?

No, because the blood is now circulated through the lungs.

Are fetal shunts needed after birth?

Foramen ovale

Which shunt closes after birth because of pressure in the right side of the heart falls as the lungs become fully inflated and there is little resistance to blood flow?

Ductus arteriosus

Which shunt closes after birth because the infant's blood oxygen level rises?

Ductus venosus

Which shunt closes after birth when the flow to the umbilical cord stops?

2 hours after birth; 3 months

When does the foramen ovale close functionally and permanently?

15 hours after birth; 3 weeks

When does the ductus arteriosus close functionally and permanently?

When the cord is cut; 1 week

When does the ductus venosus close functionally and permanently?

Ductus venosus, Ductus arteriosus

Which two shunts become ligaments?

Ductus arteriosus

If the blood oxygen level decreases after birth, which shunt can reopen?

Foramen ovale

A condition that impedes full lung expansion after birth can increase causing which shunt to reopen?

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