MET 1010: Chapter Seven

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Intro to Atmosphere

Which below best describes the solute effect?

Substances dissolved in a droplet can enhance or retard growth of the droplet.

Which statement below best describes the curvature effect?

Small droplets evaporate more quickly than large droplets.

Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the:

solute effect.

Which of the following is NOT an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence process?

The number of ice crystals in the cloud.

Which cloud type below will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?

A thick, warm cumulus cloud.

Large raindrops fall ______ than smaller raindrops, and have a ______ terminal velocity than small raindrops.

faster, greater

Which cloud would most likely produce drizzle?

Stratus.

The merging of liquid cloud droplets by collision is called:

coalescence.

If you observe large raindrops hitting the ground, you could probably say that the cloud overhead was ______ and had ______ updrafts.

thick, strong

If rain falls on one side of a street on one side of a street and not on the other side, the rain most likely fell from a:

cumulonimbus cloud.

During the ice crystal process of rain formation:

ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets.

The temperature at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is:

-40 degrees C.

Homogenous nucleation occurs when:

randomly moving atoms form clusters above threshold.

When only ice crystals exist in a cloud, the cloud is said to be:

glaciated.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei.

Ice nuclei may be:

ice crystals, certain clay minerals, bacteria in decaying plant leaf matter, etc.

Supercooled cloud droplets are:

liquid droplets observed at temperatures below 0 degrees C.

At the same sub-freezing temperature, the saturation vapor pressure just above a liquid water surface is ______ than the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface.

greater

Contact nucleation is:

involved in contact freezing. (Can be just about any substance)

The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called:

accretion.

Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works in:

cold clouds composed of ice crystals and supercooled droplets.

Which of the following conditions would be most suitable for natural cloud seeding by ice crystals?

A cirriform cloud lying directly above a lower cloud deck.

What are the two main substances used in cloud seeding?

Silver iodide and dry ice.

After a rainstorm, visibility typically:

improves.

Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:

virga.

The most common ice crystal shape is:

dendrite.

Fall streaks usually ______ before reaching the ground.

sublimate

Snowflakes or ice crystals falling from high cirriform clouds are called:

fall streaks.

A light shower of snow that falls intermittently from cumuliform clouds for a short duration is known as:

flurry.

The creaking sound produced by walking on snow is most common on:

new snow when the air temperature is below -10 degrees C.

Which below best describes why a fluffy covering of snow is able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temperatures?

Snow is a good insulator.

Large, heavy snowflakes are associated with:

moist air and temperatures near freezing.

Fall streaks most often form with:

cirrus clouds.

A true blizzard is characterized by:

low temperature, strong winds, reduced visibility, blowing snow.

The largest snowflakes would probably be observed in ______ air whose temperature is ______ freezing.

moist, near

In order for falling snowflakes to survive in air with temperatures much above freezing,

the air must be unsaturated and the wet-bulb temperature must be at or below freezing.

In the winter you read in the newspaper that a large section of the Midwest is without power due to downed power lines. Which form of precipitation would most likely produce this situation?

Freezing rain.

Which is NOT a correct association?

IDK

Which of the following might be mistaken from hail?

Graupel.

A raindrop or partially melted snowflake that freezes into a pellet of ice in a deep subfreezing layer of air near the surface is called:

sleet.

Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?

Freezing rain.

The primary method used in preventing the growth of large, destructive hailstones is to inject a thunderstorm with large quantities of:

silver iodide.

Hail deposited in a long narrow band is known as a:

hailstreak.

Precipitation with the greatest size (diameter) is:

hailstone.

Glaze is another name for:

freezing rain.

You would use a wooden stick to measure rainfall in the:

standard rain gauge.

An amount of precipitation measured to be less than one hundredth of an inch (0.25 mm) is called:

trace.

If a city were to receive 1/2 inch of rain in the morning and then 5 inches of snow that afternoon, about how much precipitation would the weather service report for that day?

1 inch.

After a snowstorm, the newspaper reports that Buffalo, New York, received 1.5 inches of precipitation. If we assume an average water equivalent ratio for this snowstorm, then Buffalo received about:

15 inches of snow.

On average, the water equivalent of 10 inches of snow is about:

1 inch of water.

Radar gathers information about precipitation in clouds by measuring the:

amount of energy reflected back to a transmitter.

In a typical advancing winter storm, which of the following sequences of precipitation types is most likely to occur?

Rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow.

Freshly fallen snow can absorb sound waves.

True.

The main difference between a cloud drop and a rain drop is its:

size.

A typical raindrop is about ______ that of a typical cloud droplet.

a million times

Saturation vapor pressure increases as temperature increases.

True.

Large cloud droplets fall faster than small cloud droplets because:

the ratio of the drop's surface area to weight is smaller.

The lightest form of rain is:

drizzle.

The difference in saturation vapor pressure between supercooled water and ice reaches a maximum at about -12°C. This means that the ice crystal process will be most effective in producing precipitation when cloud temperatures are around:

-12°C.

Satellites measure rainfall from space using which instrument?

Radar.

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