MET 1010: Chapter Ten

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Intro to Atmosphere

A westerly wind means that the atmosphere:

is moving faster than the earth spins.

Which below is NOT an assumption of the single-cell model of the general circulation of the atmosphere?

The earth rotates once in 24 hours.

The large thermally driven convection cell that is driven by convective "hot" towers along the equator is the:

Hadley cell.

Air moving eastward more slowly that the earth rotates, would appear to be ______ wind to the observer.

an east

Chicago, Illinois (latitude 42°N) is located in the:

westerlies.

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a region where:

northeast trades meet the southeast trades.

In terms of the three-cell model of the general circulation, areas of surface low pressure should be found at:

the equator and 60 degree latitudes.

In Honolulu, Hawaii (latitude 2°N), you would most likely experience winds blowing from the:

northeast.

At Barrow, Aaska (latitude 70°N), you would expect the prevailing wind to be:

easterly.

Generally, along the polar front, one would not expect to observe:

sinking air aloft.

According to the three-cell general circulation model at the equator we would not expect to find:

a ridge of high pressure.

The wind belt observed on the poleward side of the polar front is called the:

polar easterlies.

On a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere, one would observe the westerlies:

between the subpolar lows and the subtropical highs.

The majority of the United States lies within which wind belt?

Westerlies.

On a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds would be observed:

south of the subtropical highs.

In the general circulation of the atmosphere, one would find the region called doldrums:

at the equator.

In terms of the three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near:

30 degree latitudes and the polar regions.

The world's deserts are found at 30° latitude because:

of the sinking air of the subtropical highs.

On a surface weather map during the month of July, one would expect to find what type of pressure system over the desert southwest of the United States?

Thermal low.

The semi-permanent pressure systems associated with the polar front are called:

subpolar lows.

Which of the following is NOT considered a semi-permanent high or low pressure area?

Siberian high.

The position of the Pacific high over the North Pacific Ocean shifts ______ in winter and ______ in summer.

southward, northward

The large semi-permanent surface anticyclone that is normally positioned over the ocean of west California, is called the:

Pacific high.

A thermally direct cell is one that:

is driven by the energy of the sun.

Many small-scale processes are ______ in General Circulation Models.

approximated and parameterized

Which of the following does NOT describe the subtropical jet stream?

Forms along the polar front.

Which below does NOT describe the polar front jet stream?

Is normally found at a higher elevation than the subtropical jet.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar jet stream is strongest when:

air north of the polar front is much colder than air south of the polar front.

The jet stream flows:

in a wavy pattern west to east.

As an air parcel aloft moves northward from the equator, it moves closer to the earth's axis of rotation. Because of the conservation of angular momentum, the air parcel's motion should:

increase.

In the Northern Hemisphere, air found to the north of the polar front is ______ while air further South is ______.

cold, warm

The average winds aloft are strongest in:

winter.

The low-level jet stream over the Central Plains of the United States appears to be responsible for:

nighttime thunderstorms.

Factors that contribute to the formation of a low-level jet stream over the Central Plains of the United States are:

the sloping of the land from the Rockies to the Mississippi Valley, a north-south trending mountain range, stable air above the jet (all of these).

Which below is NOT correct about the stratospheric polar-night jet stream?

It is found near the tropopause.

Generally, on an upper-level (1000 mb) chart in the Northern Hemisphere during July, we would expect to find the tropical easterly jet stream:

south of the upper-level subtropical high.

A phenomenon in the Atlantic Ocean, similar to the southern oscillation, is the:

North Atlantic Oscillation.

Average weather winter temperatures in Great Britain and Norway would probably be much colder if it weren't for the:

North Atlantic Drift.

In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents in the Atlantic and Pacific move is a generally circular pattern. The direction of this motion is ______ in the Atlantic and ______ in the Pacific.

clockwise, clockwise

The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is simliar to El Niño/Southern Oscillation, except that it:

doesn't affect fish population.

At any given time, only one jet stream can be found in the atmosphere.

False.

The cold water observed along the northern California coast in summer is due mainly to:

upwelling.

Major ocean currents that flow parallel to the coast of North America are:

California, Gulf Stream, and Labrador.

The name given to the current of warm water that replaces cold surface water along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during December is:

El Niño

The two currents, warm and cold, that produce fog off the coast of Newfoundland are:

Gulf Stream and Labrador.

The turning of water with depth is known as the:

Ekman Spiral.

The Ekman Spiral describes:

the turning of water with depth.

Upwelling is:

the rising of cold water from below.

During a major El Niño event,

extensive ocean warming occurs over the tropical Pacific.

At jet streaks is a place where ______ are found.

clear air turbulence, strong vertical wind, speed shear, very strong winds (all of the above)

Upwelling occurs along the northern California coast because:

winds cause surface waters to move away from the coast.

A condition where the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean turns cooler than normal is called:

La Niña.

The reversal of the positions of surface high and low pressure at opposite ends of the Pacific Ocean is called:

the Southern Oscillation.

If the earth's surface were homogenous (either all land or water),

the semi-permanent highs and lows wouldn't change in intensity.

Because clouds often block their view, instruments onboard satellites cannot regularly make observations of surface winds.

False.

The scatterometer measures winds by sending and receiving pulses of:

microwave energy.

Satellites provide a global picture of winds by converting ______ into wind speed and direction.

sea roughness

During some years, the northern hemisphere has more than 10 semi-permanent highs and lows.

False.

The southern hemisphere has ______ semi-permanent lows than the Northern Hemisphere.

fewer

Areas of rising air tend to be associated with ______ precipitation.

abundant

Jet streams sometimes split into two branches.

True.

A jet stream transfers more heat across the globe when it is:

meridional.

The ultimate cause of jet streams is:

the energy imbalance between high and low latitudes.

During the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation,

an increased pressure gradient exists across the North Atlantic Ocean, the prevailing westerlies in the northern hemisphere are stronger, winters in the eastern US are wet and mild (all of these).

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