the tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along
contrast, scientific research is to predict what will happen in advance.
different methods are used to test the affects of each method
it has a clear, practical application
explores questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications.
express a relationship between two variables
(variables: are things that can vary among the participants in the research.)
grows out of theories.
will produce a change in the dependent variable
depends on the independent variable
aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researches to generate testable hypotheses with the hope of collecting data that support the theory.
definitions of the variables.
an explanation of how things would be or are measured
when research is measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate
when research can be replicated; it is consistent
the process by which the participants are selected
participants or group of people selected.
from which the sample will be selected.
includes anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in a sample.
when a sample can represent a larger group from which it has been selected from.
every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
it increases the likelihood that the sample represents the population and that one can generalize the findings to the larger population.
is a process that allows a researcher to ensure that the sample represents the population
Experiment-laboratory and field
Laboratory: are conducted in a lab, a highly controlled environment; can be controlled is the main advantage
Field: are conducted out in the world; they are more realistic.
Confounding variables-participant and situation relevant
is any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable.
process by which participants are put into a group, experimental or control.
each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group.
limits the participant and situation confounding variables
using random assignment diminishes the chance that the participants in the two groups differ in any meaningful way.
making the environment similar where the groups are placed in helps do this.
helps make the groups be as equal as possible for the experiment
the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis
NOTE: purposely distorting data is FRAUD not and unconscious tendency.
eliminates experimenter bias
occurs when neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research.
minimizes demand characteristics
occurs when only the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned
response or participant bias
also known as demand characteristics
are cues about the purpose of the study when the participants have the tendency to behave a certain way due to the experiment
a kind of response bias
the tendency to give politically correct answers
merely selecting a group of people on whom to experiment has been determined to affect the performance of that group, regardless of what is done to those individuals
giving a group an inert but similar/identical object that will not affect the psychological effect and the psychological thought of the effect
Correlations-Positive and negative
definition: expresses a relationship between two variables without ascribing cause.
Positive: means that the presence of one thing predicts the presence of the other
Negative: means that the presence of one thing predicts the absence of the other
involves asking pople to fill out surveys
one can no longer control for participant-relevant confounding variables
obtaining a random sample when one sends out a survey is difficult because relatively few people will actually send it back and these people are unlikely to make up a representative sample
researchers opt to observe their participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them at all
the goal is to get a realistic and rich picture of the participants' behavior.
control is sacrificed.
case study method
used to get full, detailed picture of one participant or small group of participants.
findings cannot be generalized to a larger population.
describes a set of data.
a summarization of data that tells you how many.
measures of ventral tendency-mean, median, mode
group of statistical measures as an attempt to mark the center of a distribution
Extreme scores or outliers
a data that is an exaggerated measurement that changes the outcome of the data
mean messes it up
median is the best way to go
positive versus negative skew
positive skew shows that there is a high measurement
negative skew shows that there is a low measurement
Measured of variability-range, standard deviation, variance
descriptive statistical measures with attempt to depict the diversity of the distribution
measure the distance of a score from the mean in units of standard deviation
below mean = negative z scores
above mean = positive z scores
is a theoretical bell-shaped curve for which the ares under the curve lying between any two z scores has been predetermined
measures the relationship between two variables
positive: presence of one predicts presence of the other
negative: presence of one predicts absence of other
graph that pairs values
Line of best fit/ regression line
the line drawn through the scatter plat that minimizes the distance of all the points from the line
determine whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected.
extent to which the sample differs from the population
helps determine how significant a result is
lower than .05 = not much change; higher than .05 significant change. can't be equal to zero
p value helps determine the significance of a percent difference of the result of the experiment.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Any type of academic research must first propose the study to the ethics board.
Helps run experiments in the most ethical matter and the safest for the test subjects
Participation must be voluntary
Participants must know what they are involved in research and give their consent
Participants' privacy must be protected
when anonymity cannot be granted, the researcher will not identify the source of any of the data
after study, participants must be told the purpose of the study and provided with ways to contact the researchers about the results.
prevents order effects
a switching to help the experiment not have flaws
American Psychology Association (APA)
Set up a guideline to follow for when wanting to run experiments.