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The Renaissance

The historical revival of Classical culture

Chinese humanism

elevated intellectual life over religious faith

The hero's journey

a monomyth or a world myth

Inductive reasoning

proceeds from particular facts to a general conclusion (or from effect to cause).

Architecture

is considered art because it is concerned with the aesthetic effect of structures in their surrounding environment.

Age of Enlightenment

The ideas of the Renaissance are most commonly seen as paving the way for

Donatello

was a Renaissance sculptor

Aristotle

This philosopher is best known for his argument that a life guided by reason and virtue would lead to happiness.

trompe l'oeil

An art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the illusion of three dimensions

a metaphor

In the Iliad, the poet Homer uses the phrase "the wine-dark sea." This is an example of an author using:

Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Captured Kiss

Eros Statue in Piccadilly Circus London

Odysseus Overcome (Ulysses at the court of Alcinous by Francesco Hayez, circa 1815

celebration of the individual

Renaissance artists signing their work reflects

caused a decline during the Renaissance of the power and authority of the Roman Catholic Church

I. The Protestant Reformation
II. The Great Schism
III. Popular heretical movements

"The whole glory of man lies in activity."

illustrates Renaissance humanism's stress on engagement with the world

Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance
c. 1503-1519

Gattamelata by Donatello, 1450 Sculpture during the Renaissance

Don Quixote de la Mancha and Sancho Panza (1863) by Gustave Doré, Literature during the Renaissance

Humanism

the study of the creative and intellectual contributions of human cultures

Symbolism

use of a symbol, object, or image to represent something else (that is, a concept or idea

Movement

a change of position, location, or timeframe; sense of motion, action, or time created in a work of art; distinct compositional units of a symphony; broad thematic social and artistic concerns of a given time period as expressed in its works of art

Epistemology

the branch of formal philosophy concerned with the nature and limits of human knowledge

Setting

the environment and context in which a creative work is set or takes place

Monomyth

the hero's journey archetype that appears in all cultures

Architecture

the science and art of designing buildings and other structures

The Eightfold Path

the Buddhist guide to a life of peace and harmony including eight directives for living a "right" life

Aesthetics

a conception of what is artistically valid or beautiful in art, culture, or nature

Rhythm

variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or movements over time; in poetry, the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements

Point of view

the position or perspective from which something is viewed or related

Imagery

employment of evocative images in works of art, especially poetry and literature, where words can summon up "mental pictures" for the reader

Synthesis

the combination of thesis and antithesis which produces a new and higher level of truth

Sympathetic magic

a mythic ceremony or ritual found in early societies designed to influence the behavior of deities or supernatural forces

Heresy

a challenge to or rejection of the orthodox doctrines of a religion or church

Tone

the basic element of music, also called a note; it is used to construct a melody

Metaphor

a figure of speech in which something is explained in terms of something else

Aesthetic experience

an experience of beauty that inspires a feeling of pleasure which is its own justification

Deductive reasoning

reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)

Philosophy

the systematic investigation of fundamental questions concerning such matters as existence, reality, consciousness, knowledge, truth, and justice

Agape

Greek term for platonic love

Logic

thinking in a linear, step-by-step manner about ideas or problems

Epicureanism

a philosophy which asserts that the greatest happiness in life is found in avoiding pain

Archetypes

the emblematic mythic characters, images, plot patterns, symbols, and buried assumptions shared across cultures

Context

set of facts or circumstances that surround a work of art and help us determine and clarify its meaning

Scientific method

a method of designing controlled experiments, gathering data, and developing and testing hypotheses about the natural world

Style

characteristics of a work of art that identify it with a particular artist, region, artistic movement, or historic period

Ethics

the study of the moral values of an individual, group, or culture

Pragmatic reasoning

reasoning that assumes the truth of an idea can be validated by its practical outcome

Apollonian response

an analytical, rational, objective reaction

Mahayana

Buddhist discipline that emphasizes selfless action on behalf of others

Renaissance man

a term describing an individual with broad knowledge and versatile talents spanning many intellectual and artistic disciplines

Empirical study

a study derived from experiment and observation rather than theory

Figurative explanation

a colorful, image-filled, metaphor-rich use of language to describe art or life

Propaganda

the systematic propagation of information promoting a doctrine or cause

Harmony

congruity or compatibility of parts with one another and with the whole; the state of all elements being in perfect balance

Classical humanism

the cultural movement of the Renaissance, based on Greek and Roman classic literature, that emphasized the dignity, worth, and rationality of humankind

Dionysian response

a spontaneous, unstructured, creative, passionate reaction

Cinema

an artistic medium that uses the motion picture as a vehicle for story telling and other creative expression

Trompe l'oeil

a style of painting that creates the optical illusion of three dimensionality

Inductive reasoning

reasoning that proceeds from particular facts to a general conclusion

Myths

traditional stories of a people or culture that serve to explain some natural phenomenon, the origin of humanity, or customs or religious rites

Eros

Greek term for erotic love or lust

Renaissance

a period in Western history, from the 14th through the 16th centuries, marked by a revival of interest in the culture of Greco-Roman antiquity and a flourishing of artistic and intellectual achievement

The Hero's Journey

the mythic quest in pursuit of some destination or goal whose attainment will lend greater meaning to life

Art edifying and persuading

The documentary film "An Inconvenient Truth" about former vice president Al Gore's campaign to warn the public about climate change is an example of which of the following purposes of art?

Aesthetic perception

the innate or learned ability to appreciate a work of art

Langston Hughes

An American poet who helped establish "jazz poetry"?

gouache

A watercolor painting to which an opaque white has been added

Photography

An artistic discipline that fosters Pictorialism

Symmetry

exact duplication of elements (shapes, forms, etc) on either side of a central axis

A mobile

a type of kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents

Eclecticism

a movement that stresses the inclusion or combination of several different styles in one composition or work of art

formal

The elegant gardens at Versailles are an example of ___________ landscape design

Fountain (1917) by Marcel Duchamp

(The French artist called this provocative artwork a "readymade." Such an item is also known as a found object* or found art.)

Liberty Leading the People (1830) by Eugène Delacroix

Thomas Moran's painting, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone (1872)

allowed viewers in the nineteenth century to temporarily escape from the increasingly crowded cities of the eastern United States and imagine themselves in the wide-open spaces of the West. The painting also encouraged tourism, thereby helping to boost the economy of Western states

The Bayeux Tapestry, c. 1070 (PD).

from the Middle Ages functioned as political propaganda when it was created (and still does today). It depicts the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 and honors William the Conqueror for his victory in battle.

A Medieval vision: Masolino, Temptation of Adam and Eve, (1425)

A Renaissance vision: Masaccio, The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, (1426)

Illuminating the spiritual

The Baroque composer would believe that he was______

Political and social commentary

function of art is best reflected in an anti-war protest song

shading and perspective

Artists often employ _______________to achieve the effect of three-dimensions on flat surfaces.

repetition

is the use of the same visual element several times in a work of art

intensity

The strength, or purity of a color

harmony

is the natural and comforting arrangement of visual elements.

Representing the world

purpose of art is most clearly reflected in a documentary on the NASA space shuttle program. The space shuttle documentary primarily provides a record of the world.

asymmetry

The uneven distribution of elements throughout an artwork is

space

A sense or feeling of depth, either actual or implied, is called

Line

has the properties of direction, width and length.

palette

An artist's use of color is sometimes called _____________.

Figurative

In two-dimensional art, texture is ______________.

Unity

_______________ makes a work of art feel cohesive and finished, with all the elements looking as though they belong together

Historical artifact

A museum collection of 19th century Wedgewood china would reflect the______ artifact function.

Aquatint

______________ is a method of etching that imitates the broad tints of a water color.

Lithography

is a planographic process

Alfred Stieglitz

This American photographer was a leading advocate of Pictorialism

screenprinting

Serigraphy is also known as ____________.

Photography

_as a visual art requires the photographer to design an image, compose an image, and execute an image.

tempera

A water-based paint that uses egg, glue, or casein as a binder is called:

acrylic paint

One advantage of this media for painting is that it does not yellow with age.

Chiaroscuro

This technique creates the illusion of depth through gradations of light and shade

Group f/64

Straight or pure photography was advocated by ____

Stippling

In drawing, using dots for tone, texture, and shading is called __________.

Trompe l'oeil

Two-dimensional art that is so naturalistic that it appears to have depth and distance has been dubbed by the French ________________.

Intaglio

The printmaking technique of ___________ prints an image from a recessed design incised or etched into the surface of a plate.

scale

The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment is:

Relief sculpture

A sculpture employing three-dimensions attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side is called:

Central Park (NYC)

Frederick Law Olmstead is known for his design of:

cantilever

A projecting beam or bracket stabilized by the weight of the wall from which it extends is called a:

Manipulation

______________ is when a sculptor shapes the material by hand.

found object sculpture

Marcel Duchamp's Bicycle Wheel is an example of a:

Substitution

When a sculptor casts an artwork, he or she is using the process of _______________.

Mobile

A kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents, is called:

key factors in landscape design

the function of the design,those for whom the spaces are created and the influence of the particular site and surroundings

Functionalism

Architects who design buildings based on the purpose of the structure are following ___________________.

Collage

a composition made of various materials (as paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface

Perspective

the representation of objects receding into the distance in two-dimensional art

Intensity

the strength, or purity of a color

Mass

the size, shape, and volume of three-dimensional forms

Compressive strength

ability of a material to withstand crushing

Negative

mold from which a sculpture is cast

Glyptic

sculpture which emphasizes the substances or materials from which it is made

Substitution

when the sculptor molds or casts an artwork

Watercolor

a vivid water-based paint, usually applied to paper, with outstanding brilliance and translucence; also, term for resulting artwork

Weathering

the effect of the weather/environment on the surface of an artwork

Art

skill and imagination used to create or produce aesthetic objects

Oil paint

a paint made of color pigments mixed in slowly drying oil; its main binding agent for pigment is linseed oil

Scale

the size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment

Texture

the surface quality (roughness or smoothness) of materials, either actual or implied

Low relief

sculptural relief that projects very little from the background; also called bas-relief

Serigraphy

a printing technique that forces ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing

Space

a sense or feeling of depth, either actual or implied

Focal area

the place to which a viewer's eye is drawn in a work of art

Juxtaposition

the side-by-side placement of objects in an artwork or composition

Subtraction

when the sculptor carves or cuts away unwanted material to create the work

Hue

the common name of a color (red, blue, green, yellow) and its position in the spectrum or on the color wheel

Capital

a decorative device generally placed at the top of a column as a transition for the eye

Color

the perception of reflected or emitted light in terms of hue, value, and intensity

Dome

a common structural element of architecture resembling the hollow upper half of a sphere

Relief sculpture

a sculpture employing three-dimensions attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side

Ephemeral

sculpture designed to make a statement and then cease to exist

Sunken relief

sculptural relief in which the image or design is modeled below the original surface of the background, which is not cut away

High relief

sculptural relief in which forms extend from the background to at least half their depth

Intaglio

a printing technique in which an image is printed from a recessed design incised or etched into the surface of a plate

Value

the relative lightness or darkness of color

Graphite

a soft form of carbon used in pencils

Aerial or atmospheric perspective

the use of light, atmosphere, and haziness to indicate depth or distance

Balance

a sense of equilibrium in an artwork, achieved through weight, attention, or attraction of visual element

Rhythm

the ordered recurrence or repetition of elements

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