Psychology Chapter 14

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Treating Psychological Disorders

Psychotherapy

Any psychological technique used to facilitate positive changes in a person's personality, behavior, or adjustment.

Dimensions of Psychotherapy

Insight vs action, Directive, non-directive, Individual vs group therapy, open-ended vs time-limited therapy

Trepanning

surgical procedure which a hole is bored into the skull

Exorcism

religious ritual "to cast out demands"

asylums

prison where prisoners where held with chains

psychoanalysis

A Freudian therapy that emphasizes the use of free association , dream interpretation, resistances, and transference to uncover unconscious conflicts.

free association

in psychoanalysis, the the technique of having a client say anything that comes to mind, regardless of how embarrassing or unimportant it may seem(Freud)

Dream Analysis

Freud believed that dreams disguise consciously unacceptable feelings and forbidden desires in dream form.

Analysis of resistance

a blockage in the flow of free association(ideas); topics the client resist thinking or talking about(Freud)

Transference

The tendency of patient to transfer feelings to a therapist that correspond to those the patient had for important person in his or her past(Freud)

Client centered therapy

A non-directive therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts ans feelings; emphasizing accepting one's self.(Rogers)

Unconditional positive regard

An unqualified, unshakable, acceptance of another person (Rogers)

Empathy

A capacity for taking another's point of view, the ability to feel what another is feeling. (Rogers)

Authenticity

Carl Roger's terms the ability of a therapist to be genuine and honest about his or her own feelings (Rogers)

Reflection

In client-centered therapy, the process of rephrasing or repeating thoughts and feelings expressed by clients so they can become aware of what they are saying. (Rogers)

Existential Therapy (Frankl)

An insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problem of existence, such as death, meaning, choice, and responsibility;emphasizes making courageous life choices

Free will

Existential therapist believe you can become the person you want to be.

Death, freedom, isolation, meaninglessness

Existential therapist focus on these terms the ultimate concerns of existence

Victor Frankl's logotherapy

emphasizes the need to find and maintain meaning in life.

Gestalt's Therapy(perls)

An approach that focuses on immediate experiences and awareness to help clients rebuilt thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes;emphasizes the integration of fragmented wholes

Cognitive Therapy(Beck,Ellis)

A therapy directed at changing the maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and feelings that underlie emotional and behavioral problems.

Selective Perception(Cognitive Beck, Elllis)

Perceiving certain stimuli in a large array of possibilities( 5 things go good and 3 go bad they focus on the 3 bad verses the good)

Over-generalization (Cognitive Beck, Ellis)

Blowing a single event out of proportion by extending it to a large number of unrelated situations

All or nothing thinking(Cognitive, Beck, Ellis)

Classifying objects or events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, and so forth(only see things black or white no gray area)

Rational -emotive behavior therapy(REBT)

A-B-C theory Albert Ellis, attempt to changr irrational beliefs cause many emotional problems and such beliefs must be changed or abandoned.

Behavior Therapy

Any therapy designed to actively change behavior

Behavior Modification

the application of learning principle to change human behavior, especially maladaptive behavior.

Aversion Therapy

Suppressing an undesirable response by associating it with adverse(painful or uncomfortable) stimuli Example: stuff you put on your nails that taste awful to trigger you to stop biting your nails)

Desensitization

reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion,brought by planned exposure to the aversion stimuli (hierarchy)

Virtual reality exposure

exposing to the fear in a virtual world until there is no longer a fear

Medical Therapy

Three main types of somatic(bodily)therapy are pharmacotherapy, eletrical stimulation therapy, and psychosurgery.

Phamacotherapy (Drug therapies)

the use of drugs to alleviate the systems of emotional disturbance

Aniolytics (Drug Therapies)

drugs(such as Valium) that produce relaxation or reduce anxiety.

Anti-depressants (Drug Therapies)

Mood-elevating drugs

Anti-psychotics(major tranquilizer) (Drug Therapies)

Drugs that, in addition to having tranquilizing effects, also tend to reduce hallucinations and delusional thinking.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

a treatment for severe depression, consisting of an electrical shock passed directly through the brain, which produces a convulsion.

Core Features of psycholtherapy

1.Therapeutic Alliance-a caring relationship that unites a therapist and a client in working to solve the client's problem
2.Protected setting-in which emotional release can take place.
3.Offer explanation
4.New perspective- about themselves and thier situations and a chance to practice a new behavior.

Basic counseling skills

1.Active listening
2.Reflect thoughts and feelings
3. Silence
4.Questions
5.clarify the problem
6. Focus on Feelings
7.Avoid giving advice

Group therapy

Psychotherapy conducted in a group setting to make therapeutic use of group dynamics

Psychodrama

a therapy in which the client act out personal conflicts and feelings in the presence of others who play supporting roles.

Family Therapy

Technique in which all the family members participate, both individually and as a group, to change destructive relationships and communication patterns.

Group awareness training

any number of programs that claim to increase self awareness and facilitate constructive personal change

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