Chapter 19

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integrity versus despair

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?

despair

Erik Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience _____ in later adulthood.

wisdom

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.

integrity

Mr. Widaman-Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman-Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but instead who my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____.

life review.

Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:

Life reviews avoid reflecting on regrets.

Which of the following statements about life review is NOT true?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?

socioemotional selectivity theory

Which theory challenges the notion that older adults are in despair because of social isolation?

knowledge-related.

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of goals—emotional and:

activity theory.

As a minister conscientious about the welfare of her parishioners, Reverend Douglas creates many roles in her church for retired church members. Pastor Douglas appears to be applying:

selection, optimization, and compensation.

Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:

selection

The late Arthur Rubinstein, during his old age, maintained his status as an admired pianist by few simple strategies. One of those was reducing the scope of his performances and playing fewer pieces. Which aspect of Baltes theory does this reflect?

ageism.

Older adults not being hired for new jobs, being eased out of old ones because they are perceived as too rigid or feebleminded, and being eased out because they are not considered cost effective are examples of:

disrespect for older adults

Which of the following is the most common consequence of ageism?

The medical system is still based on a "cure" rather than a "care" model.

Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?

generational inequity

The _____ issue raises questions about whether the young should be required to pay for the old, and whether the population is using resources that should go to younger people.

9.6%

According to 2006 data, the percentage of older people living in poverty is _____.

11.5%

According to 2006 data, what percentage of elderly women live alone live in poverty?

60%

What percentage of elderly African American women live alone live in poverty?

50%

What percentage of elderly Latina American women live alone live in poverty?

50

_____ percent of women 75 years and older live alone.

communicate with relatives.

Older adults use the Internet most often to:

3%

Currently, approximately _____ of older American adults cohabit ("live together").

her daughter

Who is the most likely caregiver for Mrs. Downes, an 84-year-old frail elder?

ambivalence

In most cases, researchers have found that relationships between aging parents and their children are characterized by _____.

disease.

Social support is negatively correlated with:

Many older adults prefer spending more time with a smaller circle of friends to avoid negative experiences.

Which of the following could be the probable reason why older adults tend to report being less lonely than younger adults?

collectivistic; individualistic

It is observed that respect for older adults is greater in _____ cultures than in _____ cultures.

pessimism; optimistic

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.

Disengagement

This theory of aging states that society disengages from older adults, and they disengage from society. It focused on increasing self-preoccupation, lessened emotional ties with others, and decreased interest in society's affairs. Research did not support this theory.

Activity

This theory of aging states that the more active and involved older adults are, the more satisfied they are with their lives. It's main point is a person continuing his/her middle adulthood roles through late adulthood

Social breakdown-reconstruction

This theory of aging states that aging is promoted by negative psychological functioning which is a product of negative societal views

Social reconstruction

According to Kuypers and Bengston, this can be attained by changing societal views and providing social support

Integrity vs despair

Erikson's eighth and final stage of development, which individuals experience in late adulthood. It involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one's life has not been well spent

Socioemotional selectivity

This theory states that older adults become more selective about their social networks. Because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction, older adults often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationship

Ageism

A prejudice against others because of their age, especially toward older adults

Selective optimization with compensation

This theory states that successful aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation

Selection

The concept that older adults have a reduced capacity and loss of functioning, which require a reduction in performance in most life domains

Optimization

This suggests that it is possible to maintain performance in some areas through continued practice and the use of new technologies

Compensation

This becomes relevant when life tasks require a level of capacity beyond the current level of the older adult's performance potential

Possible selves

What individuals might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming

Eldercare

Physical and emotional caretaking for older members of the family, whether by giving day-to-day physical assistance or by being responsible for overseeing such care

Generational inequity

The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members because older adults pile up advantages by receiving inequitably large allocations of resources

Convoy model of social relations

Individuals go through life embedded in a personal network of individuals to whom they give and from whom they receive support

Hummert

This researcher came up with the seven stereotypes about aging: perfect grandmother, golden ager, John Wayne conservative, severely impaired, shrewd/curmudgeon, despondent, recluse

(Robert) Peck

This researcher created subchallenges to the ego integrity vs despair stage of Erikson's theory

Differentiation vs role preoccupation

Peck's subchallege which involves learning how to reconfigure one's role(s)

Body transcendence vs body preoccupation

Peck's subchallenge which involves not focusing on every little medical ailment a person has

Ego transcendence vs ego preoccupation

Peck's subchallenge which involves a person getting past how "important" he/she is

Life review

The idea of looking back, re-evaluating, interpreting, and reinterpreting one's life

Sangree

This researcher created the seven factors associated with elderly status in culture: i.e., older persons: have valuable knowledge, control key family/community resources, etc

Grandparent

According to Neugarten and Weinstein, biological reward and continuity, emotional fulfillment, and a remote role are all benefits of being a ____________

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