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cyrus

King of Persians; expanded the Persian Empire from Afghanistan to the Aegean Sea

Darius 1

Persian emperor, he restored order to the Persian Empire after a period of rebellion. He built roads and made other improvements to Persian society.

Satrap

The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Enjoyed much power. (pg118)

Persepolis

A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homelan (119)

Zorastrianism

Monotheistic ; Imperial Bureaucracy ; Govenors help the king rule ; Road system

Polis

A city-state in ancient Greece

Hoplite

Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128

Tyrant

a ruler or person who has complete power and uses it in cruel or unjust ways

Democracy

a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Sacrifice

something given up for the sake of another; an offering to a god; to give up something for another; to offer something of value to a god

Herodotus

wrote about persian war, father of history, word history comes from name, 1st to gather facts and write them down

Percles

Led Athens during its "Golden Age"

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)

Trireme

Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. It was sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers. Manned by skilled sailors, it was capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers. (p. 132)

Socrates

philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method

Peloponnesian War

A protracted (431-404 B.C.E.) and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.

Alexander

King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)

Hellenistic Age

Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until spread of islam. (137)

Ptolemies

Descendents of Macedonian officers under Alexander. Gov't largely took over the system created by Egyptian pharaohs to extract the wealth of the land, rewarding Greeks and Hellenized non-Greeks serving in the military and administration. (p. 138)

Alexandria

City in Egyptian the west edge of the Nile Delta, planned and named for Alexander- the Great

Roman Republic

The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)

Roman Senate

A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. (148)

Patron/Client relationship

in ancient rome, a fundament social relationship in which the patron- a wealthy and powerful individual provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the client supported the political careers and economic interests of their patron

Roman Principate

A term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps ('first citizen') adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship. (p. 151)

Augustus

First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.

Equites

In ancient Italy, landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to staff the imperial civil service (152)

Pax Romana

means "Roman Peace;" specifically the term that refers to the peace and stability that Rome maintained within its borders during the early empire.

Romanization

Process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire.

Jesus

A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ.

Paul

A.D. 11-67 Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world

Aqueduct

A pipe or channel built to carry water between distant places

Third-Centruy Crisis

historians term for the political military and economic turmoil that beset the roman empire during much of the third century B.C.E frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near destruction of long distance commerce and the monetary economy. after 284 B.C.E diocletian restored order by making fundament changes

Constantine

Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity.

Byzantine Empire

Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)

Qin

A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire (221-206 B.C.E.). The Qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and enslaved subjects. (163)

Shi Huangdi

Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)

Han

imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy

Chang'an

Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.

Gentry

people of standing(rank or position); people of good family or high social position; class of people just below nobility

Monsoon

in Asia, seasonal wind that brings warm, moist air from the oceans in summer and cold, dry air from inland in winter

Vedas

sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests

Varna

caste classes: priests, warrior class, farmer and merchant class, laborers and untouchables; birth determines occupation

Jati

sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function

Karma

In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life

Moksha

The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179)

Buddha

An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)

Mahayana Buddhism

Great Vehicle branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment

Theravada Buddhism

'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Therevada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods (181)

Hinduism

a diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils

Mauryan Empire

The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (184)

Ashoka

Mauryan Dynasty; after witnessing the results of a gruesome battle he pushes Buddhism on the people; establishes Rock Edicts with Buddhist sayings

Mahabharata

A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)

Bhagavad-gita

(Hinduism) the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)

Tamil Kingdoms

The kingdoms of southern India, inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Aryan north. (185)

Gupta Empire

Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186)

Theater state

Gupta Empire 8000BCE-600CE

Malay peoples

A designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)

Funan

An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus. (p. 191)

Silk Road

An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.

Parthians

he Parthian Empire is a fascinating period of Persian history closely connected to Greece and Rome. Ruling from 247 B.C. to A.D. 228 in ancient Persia (Iran), the Parthians defeated Alexander the Great's successors, the Seleucids, conquered most of the Middle East and southwest Asia, controlled the Silk Road and built Parthia into an Eastern superpower.

Stirrup

a tiny U shaped bone that passes vibrations from the anvil to the cochlea

Indian Ocean Maritime system

In premodern times, a network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on the rim of the Indian Ocean from Africa to Indonesia. (p. 207)

Trans saharan caravan routes

trading network linking north africa with sub-sahran aftrica across the sahara

Sahel

desertification is wide spread seperates the sahra fromt eh savannah to the north, recieves little rain

Sub saharan africa

africa south of the sahara

steppes

wide rolling grassy plains that stretch from the Black Sea to northern China

savanna

A tropical grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought.

tropical rain forest

biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth

great traditions

historians term for a literate, well-institutionalized complex of religiouis and socila beliefs and practices adhered to by diverse societies over a broad geographical area

small traditions

historians term for a localized, usually nonliterate, set of customs and beliefs adhered to by a single society

bantu

Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. (p. 219)

armenia

One of the earliest Christian kingdoms, situated in eastern Anatolia and the western Caucasus and occupied by speakers of the Armenian language. (p. 221)

ethiopia

East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River. (See also Menelik II; Selassie, Haile.) (p. 221)

Sasanid Empire

Iranian empire, established ca. 226, with a capital in Ctesiphon, Mesopotamia. The Sasanid emperors established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islamic Arab armies overthrew the empire ca. 640. (p. 225)

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