AP english summer flashcards
|Alliteration|| use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse|
-Sally sell sea shells
|Allusion|| a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize|
-"Chocolate was her Achilles' heel."
|Anachronism|| something located at a time when it could not have existed or occurred|
-Brutus was interrupted by the sound of a clock in "Julius Caesar" but they didn't exist then
|Aphorism|| a concise statement of a truth or principle|
-"Lost time is never found again" Ben Franklin
|Apostrophe|| address to an absent or imaginary person|
-"Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky."
|Archetype|| an original model on which something is patterned|
|Assonance|| the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words|
-Strips of tinfoil winking like people
|Asyndeton|| a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions|
-"He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac."
(Jack Kerouac, On the Road, 1957)
|Ballad|| a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature|
-"Ballata 5" Guido Cavalcanti
|Blank Verse||poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter|
-"Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
|Carpe Diem||seize the day|
|Colloquial|| characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation|
-If I must be sold, or all the people on the place, and everything go to rack, why, let me be sold. I s'pose I can b'ar it as well as any on 'em
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
|Conceit|| A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects|
-All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances
|Connotation|| the feelings or emotions surrounding a word|
-Childlike, Youthful, Childish, Young
|Couplet|| a stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse|
-"How like Eve's apple doth thy beauty grow,/If thy sweet
virtue answer not thy show" Shakespeare
|Denotation|| the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression|
-Door: a movable structure used to open and close an entrance
|Dialect|| A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation|
|Diction|| A writer's or speaker's choice of words|
-"One of our defects as a nation is a tendency to use what have been called 'weasel words.' When a weasel sucks eggs the meat is sucked out of the egg. If you use a 'weasel word' after another, there is nothing left of the other." Theodore Roosevelt
|Elegy|| a mournful poem, esp. one lamenting the dead|
-"O Captain! My Captain!" Walt Whitman
|Euphemism|| an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive|
-adult entertainment instead of pornography
|Frame Story|| a secondary story or stories embedded in the main story|
-"Ethan Frome" Edith Wharton
|Free verse|| Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme|
-"Fog" by Carl Sandburg
|Hyperbole|| a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor|
-I told you a million times
|Iambic pentameter|| a poetic meter that is made up of 5 stressed syllables each followed by an unstressed |
-"Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, ...."
|In medias res|| in the middle of things|
|Irony|| incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs|
-fire station burning down
|Loose sentence|| a complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows|
-He went into town to buy groceries, visit his friends and go to the bookstore
|Lyric poem|| a highly musical verse that expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker|
-"Sonnet number 18" William Shakespeare
|Metonymy|| A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it|
-the pen is mightier than the sword
|Mood|| the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage|
-a dark and stormy night
|Motif|| a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work|
-Catcher in the Rye, where Holden is searching for a life partner
|Narrative poem|| A poem that tells a story.|
-"The Ring and the Book" Robert Browning
|Onomatopoeia|| using words that imitate the sound they denote|
|Oxymoron|| a figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms|
|Paradox|| a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.|
-Nobody goes to that restaurant, it's too crowded
|Parallelism|| phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other|
-"It is by logic we prove, but by intuition we discover."
(Leonardo da Vinci)
|Parody|| a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way|
|Periodic sentence|| a complex sentence in which the main clause comes last and is preceded by the subordinate clause|
-The hotel, through the addition of a state-of-the art fitness spa, extensive advertising, and weekend specials, has greatly expanded its customer base.
|Polysyndeton|| using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted |
-'he ran and jumped and laughed for joy'
|Pun|| a humorous play on words|
-when a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds
|Rhetorical question|| a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered|
-Does a bear live in woods?
|Satire|| witty language used to convey insults or scorn|
-The county could save a lot of money by requiring homeowners to repaint any fire hydrants in front of their homes
|Soliloquy|| a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage|
-"O Romeo, Romeo, Wherefore Art Thou Romeo"
|Sonnet|| a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme|
-Any of Shakespeare's Sonnets
|Synecdoche|| a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part|
-his parents bought him a new set of wheels
|Syntax|| the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences|
-The young man carries the lady.
The lady carries the young man
|Theme|| a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in a literary or artistic work|
-the best things in life are free
|Tone|| the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author|
-"I can't wait to go to the dance!"
|Imagery|| Language that appeals to the senses|
-Her blue eyes were as bright as the sun, blue as the sky, but soft as silk.