Marjorrie's Notes - Communication Midterm to Final Review

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Midterm-Final

CHAPTER 1: After ending a romance, Ashley takes some time to process the meaning of the relationship. She asks HERSELF what she did wrong...

intrapersonal

Small group communication serves both _____ needs (those for companionship, affection, and support) and _____ needs (those that get things done).

relationship; task

Gretta was invited to share her research findings with the board of directors. The board consisted of twelve members who all arrived specifically to listen to Gretta's presentation.

public communication

Your ability to understand, analyze, evaluate, and produce mass communication messages (television, film, radio, newspapers, Web sites, etc.) is referred to as:

media literacy

Janene has noticed that in most of her interactions, individuals perform BOTH sender and receiver roles simultaneously. On which of the following communication models is she focusing?

transactional

Speakers are referred to as encoders and listeners or readers are referred to as decoders in which communication model?

transactional model

Usually you encode an idea into a code that others understand, such as an ethnic language or a shared vocabulary. But sometimes you may want to exclude others. Which of the following is an example of excluding others?

speaking in a particular language or using jargon

A message that makes reference to another message is referred to as a:

metamessage

Sometimes when Rachel speaks in her political science class, she gets blank stares from those listening. She is experiencing:

feedback

Kareem accesses a number of Internet blogs for both entertainment and research purposes. He notices that some blogs contain a lot of useful information, with interesting facts and opinions. Others contain useless fluff or are full of junk. This degree of usefulness of information relates to the concept of:

signal-to-noise ratio

The difficulty individuals experience when attending to the system of signals employed by various cultures is explained by which of the following communication principles?

Communication is a process of adjustment

Accepting that messages have multiple interpretations acknowledges which of the following principles?

Communication is ambiguous

One principle of communication is that it is purposeful. The five basic purposes of communication are:

to learn, to relate, to help, to influence, to play

Shawn made an extremely negative and inappropriate comment to a classmate about the Boston Red Sox and his instructor overheard it. He quickly recanted by saying, "I'm sorry. That was stupid. You know I didn't mean it. Boston has the best team in America." But his instructor still felt disturbed by the exchange. This example demonstrates which of the following principles of human communication?

Communication is irreversible and unrepeatable

Individuals have a variety of misconceptions about the human communication processes. Which of the following best describes a basic misconception that individuals struggle to recognize about their communication with others?

Communication is reversible

_________ consists of the beliefs, ways of behaving and artifacts of a group.

culture

The five dimensions of culture include all of the following, except:

cultural ambiguity

__________ is considered a cultural variable largely because cultures teach boys and girls different attitudes, beliefs, values, and ways of communicating to one another.

Gender

Ramona is confused about how to approach her roommate, who recently moved to the U.S. from Russia, so she is talking to her mother about her roommate's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. In this way, Ramona is describing her roommate's:

culture

Alexis is stunned by the television coverage of human rights abuses in African nations and Internet photos of widespread devastation. If she hadn't seen these graphic images, she probably wouldn't have felt so strongly. Her reaction involves which of the major factors that influence culture?

communication technology

Sidney has a very particular view about organization. He values predictability and needs to be surrounded by order, and he doesn't like ambiguity or surprises. Which dimension of culture is involved here?

uncertainty avoidance

Xiu is trying to distance herself from her family's strong Chinese heritage and attachment to ancient tradition. This indicates that she is trying to reduce her commitment to the beliefs and philosophies of her culture, referred to as:

ethnic identity

Which of the following is true regarding ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism involves assuming that our view of our own culture is superior to the view of any other cultures.

____________ is a state of awareness in which you are conscious of your reasons for thinking or behaving

Mindfulness

Communication ____________ refers to your knowledge of how communication works and your ability to use communication effectively.

competence

CHAPTER 4: Christina's instructor talked about the concept of "filtration" during her chemistry class. If Christina needed to look up the meaning of this term in the dictionary, she would be assessing its:

denotative meaning

General words or terms are called

abstractions

Which of the following statements is the LEAST abstract

"By the tenth, send me a memo listing the strengths and weaknesses as you see them."

Rebecca had a problem with her level of directness when communicating with others. According to research on male and female differences for communicating directness, which of the following is true?

Women tend to communicate powerlessness and discomfort with their own authority.

A _____ dictates the ways that people properly interact and function within a culture.

cultural rule

The principle of cooperation has four subprinciples, or _____ . These elaborate on the culturally accepted assumption that in any interaction, both parties will make an effort to understand one another.

conversational maxims

___________ is the subjective or emotional meaning that specific speakers or listeners give to a word.

Connotation

Words that are highly NEGATIVE, such as "She's an idiot," are sometimes called:

snarl words

Words that are highly POSITIVE, such as "She's a real sweetheart," are sometimes called:

purr words

All of the following are concrete words, EXCEPT:

•bicycle
•tree
•concept
•film

concept

All of the following are abstract words, EXCEPT:

•vase
•value
•process
•concept

vase

Sally and Shondra are coworkers. Sally treats Shondra as if her comments are of little value, as if her ideas aren't worth anyone's attention, and basically as if Shondra didn't exist. Sally is engaging in:

disconfirmation

Ashid was ready to take the next step with Elizabeth and move toward an intimate relationship. To do this, Ashid interacted in such a way that showed how he accepted Elizabeth and her own self-definition. In this situation, Ashid is displaying which of the following forms of communication?

confirmation

Anthony often displays a number of disconfirmation behaviors during his interactions with others. What advice might you offer Anthony to become better at confirming rather than disconfirming when speaking with others?

Demonstrate understanding of what the other person says and means

"Gay bashing" and the use of certain language that can be construed as disparaging to gay men or lesbians is a form of:

individual heterosexism

Though they change over time, which of the following terms is currently an ACCEPTED and preferred cultural identifier?

"older person"

Language that disparages someone because of his or her gender is considered _______ language.

sexist

_____________ sexism involves customs and practices that discriminate against people because of gender.

Institutional

Ryan had always talked about Michelle in a positive way, describing her as a "great person" and a "free spirit". When William met Michelle for the first time, he immediately thought of her as "great person" and a "free spirit" because that's the way Ryan had always described her. In this situation, William is using a(n):

intensional orientation

Gabriella found herself JUMPING to CONCLUSIONS about people by the time she hears only half of the story or the event. Which of the following terms reflects the assumptions that Gabriella is making regarding other people?

inferences

After talking with William for the first time, Danielle said to herself, "I doubt if he likes me. But then again it's hard to tell. It was our first date. It was loud in the restaurant so we couldn't talk much, and we didn't have a lot of time tonight, et cetera." This statement about William's interest in Danielle would be classified as a(n):

extensional orientation

Sabrina invited her friends from the elementary school faculty for Sunday brunch. Her husband, Lee, rolled his eyes and said, "Oh boy, a room full of school teachers, what a blast this will be." Lee's FAILURE to DISTINGUISH between SIMILAR, BUT DIFFERENT PEOPLE is

indiscrimination

This term is used to describe the fallacy of the "EITHER/OR" and explains the world in EXTREMES.

Polarization

When you RETAIN JUDGEMENT of a person, DESPITE the inevitable CHANGES in that person, you are engaging in ________ evaluation.

static

This device is a MENTAL SUBSCRIPT that HELPS GUARD against STATIC evaluation.

date

CHAPTER 5 After dating for ten years, Christopher and Lauren were forced to spend the summer apart from one another. At the airport, Christopher turned to Lauren and said, "I will always love you" and began to cry. This event best illustrates which use of nonverbal communication?

complementation

Steven is a very quiet person who would prefer to utilize nothing but his nonverbal behaviors to communicate with others, if that were possible. He limits his verbal communication and often simply shakes his head "yes" and "no" when people ask him questions. Which of the following methods is Steven using to eliminate the use of verbal communication?

substitute

During a long conversation, you noticed that you were running late for an upcoming class. To stop the conversation you pointed to your watch and said, "I need to get going or I'll be late." Which of the following uses is your nonverbal behavior serving in this situation?

repeating

Robert is talking quickly and excitedly, barely taking a breath. As he goes on and on, Sarina holds up her hand to indicate "STOP." Sarina's nonverbal gesture is an example of a(n)

regulator

While waiting for the door to the electronics store to be opened, Kevin subconsciously jingled the keys in his pocket. This behavior may be best described as a(n):

object-adaptor

Which of the following characteristics of nonverbal communication may be the best indicator of how involved a person is in a communication situation?

eye contact

After watching the president's speech with his friends, Glen starts a lively conversation and hopes to hear other people's opinions about it. He wants to position himself at the distance considered to be the most comfortable for the free exchange of feedback. In this case, he would maintain a(n)

personal distance

Inside Amanda's cubicle at work, a huge letter "A" hangs on the wall and a sticker that says "Amanda's place" is on the computer monitor. To claim her space, Amanda has used

ear markers

Brenda stays out all night during a heavy snowstorm and doesn't get home till the following evening. Her mother says, "It would have been polite to call, since it was the worst blizzard of the decade." Brenda points out that she is twenty-three years old and not a child anymore. She gives a number of examples of her independence and maturity. Her mother remains silent. What function does her mother's silence fulfill?

to give Brenda time to think and digest the information presented

________________ serve to divide your territory from that of others

Boundary markers

_____________ markers are items you place in a territory to reserve it for you, such as a coat over a chair.

Central

The study of smell communication is called

olfactics

Touch communication, also called __________ communication, is the most primitive form of nonverbal communication

tactile

The study of touch communication is called

Haptics

_____________ is/are the vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech

Paralanguage

Individuals normally remove themselves physically from interaction when addressing large groups. Which proxemic distance does this involve?

public distance

Compared to men, women tend to _____ while speaking and in listening, and while communicating with both men and women.

make eye contact more and maintain it longer

The members of a _____ tend to minimize the level of closeness and amount of touch they display during conversations with others.

noncontact culture

People in monochronic cultures see time as

•fluid and flexible.
•rigid and structured.
•insignificant.
•a foundation upon which to create relationships.

rigid and structured

People in _____ cultures believe that human relations are more important than the business at hand. So, even in business situations, time is a relativity unimportant issue

polychronic

Which of the following tends to be true concerning people who operate on polychronic time?

They treat time schedules and plans as useful, not sacred

In the US, the color ____________ signifies capitalism, go ahead, and envy

green

In China, the color __________ signifies wealth and authority

yellow

Silence may signal all of the following, EXCEPT

•personal anxiety
•emotional response
•the importance of the message
•intense interest

intense interest

_____________ messages are conveyed through objects or arrangements made by human hands.

Artifactual

CHAPTER 6 ____________ communication is that which occurs between two people who have a relationship and who are influenced by each other's messages.

Interpersonal

Which of the five stages of communication is generally focused on achieving some type of goal?

business

Which stages of communication would you be most likely to hear someone say, "How are you?"

opening

Conversation takes place in ____ steps

5

Interpersonal communication can be considered as part of a continuum ranging from __________ to __________.

impersonal; personal

All of the following are considered personal forms of communication, EXCEPT

a doctor talking with a patient

The second step in the interpersonal communication process is ____________.

feedforward

In the feedforward stage of interpersonal communication, you are attempting to open the _________ of communication.

channels

A(n) __________ message is one which signals that communication will take place.

phatic

In office memos and e-mail messages, the feedforward function is served by the _________ that indicates the subject of the message.

header

All of the following are general purposes of interpersonal communication, EXCEPT:

to dominate

The fourth step of conversation is ____________, which is where you reflect on the conversation.

feedback

In the __________ step of the communication process, the intention is to summarize the conversation.

closing

Throughout the speaking-listening process, both speaker and listener exchange cues for what are called _______________ turns.

conversational

The purpose of ____________ cues is to communicate your wish to maintain the role of speaker in the conversation.

turn-maintaining

The purpose of __________________ cues is to communicate that you are as speaker are finished and want to turn the role of speaker over to the one listening.

turn-yielding

The purpose of ____________ cues is to communicate that you (as the listener) would like to say something and take a turn as speaker.

turn-requesting

______________ cues are used to communicate various types of information back to the speaker without assuming the role of speaker.

back-channeling

___________ is/are attempts on the part of the listener to take over the role of speaker.

Interruptions

Research has found that men tend to ____________ in conversations more than women.

interrupt

Ezra approached his manager and began discussing a few ideas he had for organizing the department's daily workflow. His manager began to interrupt but Ezra took a breath, held up his hand, avoided eye contact, and continued speaking. Ezra is using

turn-maintaining cues

When Brian is done talking and wants the other person to respond, he lifts his arms, opens his palms, shrugs, and says, "Am I right?" Brian is using

turn-yielding cues

When Charles and Ramone get on the phone, Charles goes on and on, barely acknowledging Ramone other than as an accepting listener. When Charles does all the talking and Ramone does all the listening, the communication is

monologic

In order to create immediacy, Maureen decides to focus on the remarks of others, let them know they were heard, and give appropriate feedback. Which technique for communicating immediacy is Maureen using here?

orienting the conversation to the other person

In _________, each person is both speaker and listener, sender and receiver.

dialogue

CHAPTER 7 William and Christina have been dating for the past two months and Christina currently thinks William is the best thing that has ever happened to her. He's intelligent, generous, witty, and he listens when she talks. In which of the following stages of an interpersonal relationship are William and Christina?

involvement

During the ____________ part of a relationship, couples often experience a shift in focus from the past and present toward the future by hinting about a shared future together.

interpersonal commitment

Just as relationships are able to develop, they also find themselves failing in predictable stages. In which phase of a relationship do partners discuss the problems they are having and the changes they would like to see?

interpersonal repair

In the contact stage of relationships, _________ contact is typically superficial and impersonal.

interactional

After 6 months of dating, Lucinda has decided to bring her boyfriend home to meet her parents and little sister. What intimacy stage best characterizes their relationship?

social bonding

At what stage of the interpersonal relationship process do partners begin to share social networks?

Intimacy

The intimacy stage is usually divided between the interpersonal phase and the ________ phase.

social bonding

As a relationship deteriorates, there is less of all the following, except

deception

Carla used to think that Hamilton's laugh was cute; now she finds it extremely annoying. Carla is experiencing relationship __________.

deterioration

The two most common feelings that accompany the ending of a relationship are loneliness and

depression

The __________ of a relationship has to do with the number of topics you and your partner talk about.

breadth

Clara told James, "I think we should spend a few weeks apart to think about our relationship." Clara is sending a __________ message to James

dissolution

Steve is pushing hard on Barb to get engaged but Barb's response is that she doesn't want to make that commitment right now. Barb is sending Steve a __________ message.

maintenance

In a friendship of ______________, one person is the primary giver and the other person the primary receiver.

receptivity

Carl and Wanda live next to each other in the apartment building. They see each other almost every day and are friendly but have no interest in a romantic or even a social relationship. What kind of friendship do they have?

Association

A love that is peaceful and tranquil is called ______________ love.

storge

Daniel "fell in love" with Clarice the first time he saw her. He is experiencing which type of love.

eros

A relationship between two people who are dating would be considered a _________ relationship.

primary

The principle of complementarity says that we are attracted to those who are

opposite

James and Hieu live in apartments facing one another. They are friendly and cordial, sharing polite banter and joking around, but they don't have a true commitment. Which type of friendship do James and Hieu have?

friendship of association

Helena and Henry began connecting with one another when they were moved into adjoining cubicles at work. They spend their days several feet away from one another, overhearing conversations and sharing office supplies, taking breaks and lunches together. Which element of attraction does this represent?

proximity

In India, women may experience greater difficulty than men in divorce, in part, because of their _________ dependence on men.

economic

Compared to men, women __________ in interpersonal relationships

are more affectionate

Which of the following is one of the benefits or advantages that people who communicate with others in an online format would most likely experience?

Increased physical safety

When it comes to interpersonal relationships between men and women, research confirms that men are more _______ than women.

romantic

CHAPTER 8 Which of the following is true regarding conflict?

Conflict occurs between people who are connected

Interpersonal conflict is part of

every interpersonal relationship

In a study of same-sex and opposite-sex couples, which of the following issues did both types of couples least often argue about?

distrust issues, such as lying

What is the most often mentioned area or issue of conflict among gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples?

intimacy

Jake and Jon go to see a comedy movie together. On the way out, they start arguing about whether it was good or bad. Jake thinks it was very funny, while Jon thinks it was kind of stupid. What type of conflict does this represent?

content

The phrase: "I earn the money, therefore, I get to choose the type of car we buy," is representative of the ____________ conflict style.

competing

The accommodating conflict style represents a__________ philosophy.

I lose, you win

___________ is a special kind of avoidance where a person refuses to discuss or listen to the other person's argument.

Nonnegotiation

When confronted with conflict, many people prefer not to deal with the issues but rather become _________ in their position in an effort to dominate.

forceful

Qiu tends to attack other people's self-concepts. In this way, Qiu shows herself to be

aggressive

Which of the following is one of the few stereotypes that is supported by research on conflict?

the sometimes aggressive male

Ursula usually blames her boss when any kind of problem occurs in the office. She rarely seems to recognize what she does wrong, but regularly expects her boss to admit being wrong. What kind of conflict style does Ursula use?

competition

Elise tends to give in whenever her friends or coworkers disagree with her. She doesn't like conflict and would rather "go with the flow" than fight for her opinion. What is her conflict style?

accommodating

Mindy and Mavis always seem to have dirty dishes in the sink. One day they start arguing about the continual mess and who is responsible for it. Mindy proposes that she will do all the dishes this week if Mavis will do them next week, and so on. What style of conflict is Mindy using?

compromise

When you evaluate or judge another person or what that person has done, that person is likely to become

defensive

Evaluative "you" messages are likely to elicit a(n) ____________ response in the person who receives them.

defensive

All of the following are types of talk that are likely to prove destructive except

empathy

When Karina gets mad at Javier, she goes into the bedroom, turns on the radio, and doesn't come out all night. Karina's behavior is a form of

avoidance

Luis acts as if he doesn't care when Cecile gets upset about something. He goes about his business, smiling and singing to himself. Luis is demonstrating

neutrality

Felicity tends to get her way by using extreme emotionalism, power tactics, and crying. These are all examples of:

silencers

Tina keeps quiet when she gets irritated or annoyed until finally she can't stand it and explodes. She uses what kind of conflict strategy?

gunnysacking

There are _______ basic styles for engaging in conflict as it relates to interpersonal relationships.

5

The phrase, "Let's explore this issue together and try to find a solution" is an example of the attitude of

provisionalism

One frequently used silencing technique is

crying

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