whole task instruction
The entire task is presented in sequence. Prompting is used and faded throughout so that the student is actively engaged
partial task instruction
Some lessons may require the environment to be "set up" for success.
Good for skills that stand alone- not those that are linked to other behaviors. Allows for repeated practice of a skill in a given amount of time. Must include some planning of how skills will be generalized
Usually student led or initiated. More flexible that other methods but also a bit harder to assess effectiveness
Very similar to Natural Environment Training
Not actually a lesson format but rather the identification of independent steps that make up a specific task to be taught.
Uses the information provided by the task analysis.
Can be presented using whole task or partial task formats. Can also be presented as a forward chain or a backward chain (which end of the task analysis will be taught first).
Teaches independence at the first step of the task analysis while support (prompting) is provided for remaining steps
Provide support (prompting) for all steps of a task until the last task. Teach independence for that step.
Continue to teach independence working from the end to the beginning
reward all attempts a child makes at a particular target behavior gradually rewarding responses that look more and more like the actual target response
A physical movement or gesture of another person that leads to the correct behavior
A supplemental verbal cue (SD) that raises the probability of a correct response.
You manipulate or position the student so he or she will respond correctly
Materials are situated in a way that the student will respond correctly.