### Behaviorism X

Behavior can be pridicted and controlled. B.F. Skinner focused on studying stimulus and response paired with reinforcement. Failed to consider individual needs and motivations.

### Piaget

6 stages of development

sensorimotor baby-2 simple reflexes- organized behaviors

stage 2 preoperational period 2-7 physically based responses - using symbols

concerte operational period 7-11 the child's acquisition of logic

formal operational period 11-15 hypothetical thinking

### Erikson

based his ideas on Fred 3-5 initiative vs guilt starts to initiate behaviors, devel conscience, and sexual id

6-12 industry vs. inferiority develops self worth

### Lev Vygotsky

child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research

### Lawrence Kohlberg

moral reasion at which judgment about right and wrong are pretty much a matter of expediency

### Carol Gilligan

moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse

### Jerome Bruner

Theories:"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.

### Carl Jung

2 Perceiving function Sensing (people who make decisions based on rational, logical, and objective data) and intuition ( Those who make decisions based on how they may affect others avoiding conflict and promoting harmony)

### Bloom's Taxonomy

Remembering- long term memory

understanding- is able to explain the info presented

Apply- uses info to complete a task

Analyze-recognizes the overall purpose of info (correlates)

Evaluate- make judgements based on criteria (appraises)

Creates- puts elements together to form a coherent whole

### criterion-referenced tests

students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested

### percentile scores

the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.

### reliability

the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time

### Marie Clay

emergent literacy- the stage during which children begin to receive formal instruction in reading and writing and the point at which educators and adults expect them to begin developing an understanding of print. 0-5

### Neurological impress method

Heckleman sit behind the child pointing to words as you read the words together 1. deve fluency 2. impress the words in the child's memory 3 fosters correct phraseing 4 builds confidence 5 povides immediate feedback 6 it is pleasent

### reading strategies

activating prior knowledge

predicting

visualizing

drawing infernces

determining important ideas

repairing information- stopping to clarify ideas

using the parts of the book

reflecting

### interpretive level of reading

figuring out the author's purpose, main idea, essental message, & point of view

### assessing comprehension

questions may be convergent- one answer answer is correct or divergent- more than one answer is correct

### the SQ3R

survey- breif overview of the text look at charts chapter titles

question- devise some questions that the chapter will probably answer

read

recite- answer the questions

review

### PROVE

Purpose- guide your own reading

read

organize- make an outline

vocabulary- learn new words

evaluate- determine if you achieved your purpose

### close test for reading comp

60%- independent reading level

40%-60%- instructional reading level

below 40%- frustration level

### Process guide

the teacher develops specific helps for a section of the text that the students are going to read that the teacher thinks might cause some confussion ex: a list of key terms

### Luria's stages in writing

1 undifferentiated stage- 3-5 marks seem random to the child

2 differentiated stage- the child reps short words with shorter marks

3 pictographic stage 4-6

### process writing

prewriting- collecting info

composing- sloppy copy

revising stage- writers improve wording

editing- correct their own work and the work of others

rewriting stage

publishing

### Deductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)

### inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

### teaching inductively

the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves

### adaptive thinking

the capacity to think logically about the relationships between concepts and situations

### resonableness

the key to converting word problems into math problems with the choice of operations being crucial to sucess

### base 10 place value scheme

as we move to the left in any number each place value is 10 times the place value to the right ex: 543 (5 X [10X10] ) + (4 X [10X1] ) + (3X1)

or (5 X 10 to the 2 power) + (4 X 10 to the 1st) +3 X 10 to the 0

### modeling the operations

concerte method- working with real objects

semiconcrete- the students work with visual reps

semiabstract method-the students work with a symbol (tally marks) to represent objects

### associative property for addition and multiplication

3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference

### factors

are any number or symbols in math that when multiplied together form a product the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12

### fractions

the fraction 1/4 can not be expressed as a integer their are more fractions than whole numbers between every integer there is a fraction

### decimal numbers

all decimals are actually fractions to change a fraction into a decimal divide the numerator by the denominator

### irrational numbers

numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0.

### rational numbers

numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers

### percent

any decimal number can be converted to a percent by shifting the decimal point two places to the right and adding the %.135 becomes 13.5%

### ratio notation

an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5

### two angles are adjacent if

they share a common vertex, they share only one side, and one angle does not lie in the interior of the other

### alternate exterior angles

exterior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal have have the same degree measurement

### corresponding angles

An interior angle and an exterior angle that have different vertices and have sides on the same side of the transversal

### Pythagorean theorem

States that in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.

a2+b2=c2

### rectangle

a quadrilateral (a four sides figure) in which sides opposite each other are both of equal length and parallel a square is a rectangle

### similar polygons

the same shape but different sizes corresponding angles of similar figures have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional

### tessellation

a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps

### coordinate plane

divided into four quadrants by an x (horizontal) y (vertical) axis the upper right quad is I and the others moving counterclockwise are II III and IV

### ordered pairs

indicate the locations of points on the plane (-3, 4) describes a point that is 3 units left from the center of the plane and four up

### measures of centeral tendency

mean- the average of the numbers

median- the middle number when the vaules are in order

mode-the value occurring most often

range- the largest number- the smallest number

### probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events

### problem solving strategies

estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)

guess and check

draw a picture

make a table or a chart

act it out

look ofr patterns

simplify the numbers

work backwards

### expanding horizon approach or the widening horizon curriculum

Based on the original belief that children learn about their environment in gradually expanding concentric circles this type of curriculum begins with what the children supposedly already know and moves outward.

### typical topics for socail studies in each grade

K-1 family home school

2 community

3 state history and geography, holidays and history of the united states

4 regions of the world or state history and geography

5 american history and geography

6 world history and geography

7 state history and U.S. history

8 civics american history

### systematic inquiry

the ability to acquire information from a variety of sources and to organize and interpret that information. It begins with designing and conducting investigations

### the five themes of geography

location- absolute loctation longitude and latitude

relative location-how a location effects the

community

human/ environmental interaction-how people effect the

area

movement and connections-transporation

and regions, patterns, and process- students can study

an areas uniqueness

### meridians

or longitude- lines running from pole to pole 360 of them surround the earth in 1 degree increments

### three generalizations of geography that relate the past and human concerns to places

physical factors and cultural factors are related ex the physical enviornment affects the types of houses people build

change is constant

people modify the environments they inhabit

### Paleolithic period

also called the stone age 2.5 million years ago 10,000 B.C. people lived in small groupsof perhaps 10 to 20 nomadic people

### reasons for people moving

cultural reasons- moving to live with others who are more similar to them

physical reasons- people may need to satisfy a phsical need or bring a needed reasource to another area

political reasons- people may be unhappy with the government or be attracted to a system of government

### synectics

forces students to make an analogy between two concepts one familar and the other new ex comparing a cell to a city government

### types of anthropologist

archaeologists

Primatologist- study the group behavior of primates

ethnographers- gather information about culture through feild work

linguistic anthropologists- study lang in socail context

physical or biological anthropologists- study humans and primates both living and fossil

### scientific method

a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

### scientific method steps

1) Identify the problem

2) Research the problem

3) Formulate a hypothesis

4) test the hypothesis (experimenting)

5) accept/reject the hypothesis (interpret the results

6) Report/share the results

### significant figures

A prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement

### experiment

testing the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable in a controlled environment

### inference

ex you can infer that a classroom of 30 students has 16 girls if you know that there are 14 boys.

### In planning and conducting an experiment the scientist must

1 id relevant variables

2 id equipment needed

3 eliminate or suppress any factors that could influence measured variables

4 decide on a means of analyizing the data obtained

### data representation- graphical form

raw data is plotted

the independent (contolled) variable is usually displayed on the x-axis(horizontal)

the dependent variable is ussually displayed on the y axis

### an inquiry lesson

starts with a thought provoking question

gathering information from a variety of sources and organize and interpret that information

uses inductive teaching

### inductive science lessons

students study, conduct, research, collect and analyze data and then develop generalizations and rules based on their findings

students take responsiblity for their own learning by planning, carrying out, and presenting research and projects

### crust

the solid outermost layer composed of bedrock overlaid with mineral and organic sediment ranging from 5 to 40 kilometers thick

### valcanoes

mountains that form when two plates move away from one another to let magma reach the crust

### seafloor spreading

the creation of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges and movement of the crust away from the mid-ocean ridges

### evidence of continental drift and the underlying plate tectonics

continents look as though they should fit together like a puzzle

smiliar fossils appear on the edges of continents

seismic volcanic and geothermal activity occurs more frequently along plate boundaries than in sites far from boundaries

mountain ranges and ridges are forming where plates are pushing against each other

### the force of gravity is proportional to

the product of the masses of the two ojects divided by the square of the distance between them

### buoyancy

objects sink in liquids or gases alike if they are denser than the material that surrounds them

### compound

(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight ex: water H2O

### mixture

made up of one or more types of molecules not chemically combined and without any definite weight proportions

### required activities of living things

food getting, respiration, excretion, growth, repair, movemwnt, response, secretion, & reproduction -living things must perform all of these functions

### cells are made up of

smaller structures called organelles wich are surrounded by cell fuild or cytoplasm

### phagocytosis

particals that are to large to be passed through the cell membrane may be engolfed by the cell membrane and stored in vacuoles until they can be digested

### chlorophyll

the pigment found in chloroplasts that catalyzes the photosynthetic reaction that turns carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen

### respiration

the exchange of gases in living things or the release of energy from sugars for use in life activities

### asexual reproduction takes places either by

fragmentation ex: growing new plants from cuttings or by special asexual structures- invovles seeds produced by a male and female

### germination

a sufficient amount of water is absorbed by the seed precipitating biochemical changes that initiate cell division

### 2 divisions of the nervous system

the somatic- allowing voluntary control over seletal muscles

autonomic- controlling cardiac and glandular functions

### 3 types of nerve receptors

exteroceptors- pain temp touch & pressure

interoceptors- internal

proprioceptors- movement position and tension