Module I: Basic Sciences-Cardiovascular System

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Baroreceptors

receptors in aortic arch, carotid sinus and ventricles which respond to changes in blood pressure. (part of parasympathetic nervous system)

Myocardium

cardiac muscle

automaticity

ability to contract on its own without stimulation

Atria

superior chambers of heart

ventricles

inferior chambers of heart

Superior Vena Cava

receives blood from above heart

Inferior Vena Cava

received blood from below heart

Coronary Sinus

blood from veins of heart muscle

Arteries

vessels leading away from heart

Veins

vessels leading toward the heart

Pulmonary Artery

Caries O2 depleted blood to lungs

Pulmonary Veins

Caries O2 saturated blood to left atrium

Mitral Valve

valve between left atria and ventricle

Aorta

Caries O2 saturated blood to body

Heart Murmur

back flow or turbulence of blood in heart

Ischemia

weakened heart cells from lack of O2

Angina pectoris

chest pain

Myocardial Infarction

heart attack or death of heart tissue

Arterioles

small arteries

Capillaries

microscopic vessels where O2 & CO2 exchange

Venules

small veins

Vasoconstriction

decrease in size of vessel

Vasodilation

increase in size of vessel

Diastolic phase

blood pressure when ventricles are relaxed

Systolic Phase

blood pressure when ventricles are constracting

Cardiac Cycle

1 alternate contraction and relaxation followed by short pause

Bradychardia

Heart rate below 60 beats per minute

Tachycardia

Heart rate above 60 beats per minute

Cardioacceleratory Center

Neurons in medulla of brain which travel to SA node of heart, release norepinephrine to increase heart rate and strength of contractions

Cardioinhibitory Center

Neurons in medulla of brain which heart via vagus nerve, release acetylcholine which decreases heart rate and force of contraction

SA Node

Pacemaker of heart (in right atria)

AV Node

Between atria and ventricle

Bundle of His

fibers in right and left ventricles which stimulate contraction

Purkinje Fibers

system of fibers which spreads impulse among ventricular muscle fibers

Stroke Volume

Amount of blood pumped by left ventricle in each beat (60mL of blood = 2oz)

Cardiac Output

Blood pumped out of left ventricle in 1 minute (Stroke Volume x Heart Rate = Cardiac Output)

Hyoxia

lack of oxygen

P wave

Atrial depolarization=atrial contraction

QRS wave

Ventricular contraction

T wave

ventricular repolarization=ventricle relaxation

Dysrhythmias

abnormal heart rhythms

Lingual Artery

supplies tongue, floor of mouth

Facial Artery

inferior border of mandible, across face

Maxillary Artery

Supply for face

Inferior Alveolar Artery

supplies mandible and teeth

Pterygoid Plexus

drains from cranial cavity, jaws, sinuses and muscles of mastication

Hematoma

clotted or partially clotted blood outside a vessel

Antecubital Space

anterior surface of elbow

Phlebitis

inflammation of the vein

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