Salon Fundamentals/Esthetics - Chapter 8

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The Integumentary System

Dermatology

The study of the skin, it's functions, diseases and treatments.

Two or more types of tissues connect to form what?

An organ

Name the skin's six primary functions

Protection
Absorption
Secretion
Excretion
Regulation
Sensation
(PASERS)

What is the normal pH of the skin?

4.5 to 5.5

What is the body's normal temperature and how does it regulate it?

98.6. It regulates the temperature by mechanisms like shivering and goosebumps.

What is the primary component of skin cells?

A protein called keratin.

What is the difference between hard keratin and soft keratin?

Hard karatin makes up nails and hair, soft keratin makes up skin.

Name the 3 layers of the skin from upper to lower.

Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous layer

Name the 5 layers of the epidermis.

Stratum Corneum - Toughest layer
Stratum Lucidum - Transparent, clear layer
Stratum Granulosum - Grain-like cells
Stratum Spinosum - "spiny", irregular shaped cells
Stratum Germinativum - basal cell responsible for cell growth

Where is the Stratum Lucidum found and where is it most prominant? What other feauture is based in this layer

It is found through out the body and it thickest on the palms of hands and soles of feet. It contains epidermal ridges that help with traction and are responsible for fingerprints.

What kind of cells are found in the Stratum Spinosum and what are they responsible for?

Langerhans cells. They help protect the body from infection.

What are Keliods?

Raised, thick scars resulting from excessive amounts of collagen.

Where are the Mast cells and what do they do?

Located in the dermis and they respond to allergies by releasing histamines.

What makes a pain receptor?

A nerve ending not associated with cells.

Within the dermal layer, there are 4 main sensory receptors. Name them and what they are responsible for.

Meissner's Corpuscles - Light pressure and cold
Ruffini's Corpuscles - Long term pressure and heat
Pacinian Corpuscles - deep pressure and pain
Krause's End Bulbs - pressure and pain

What are Apocrine glands and where are they located?

Sweat glands located under the arms, in the genitals and the nipples.

What are Eccrine glands and where are they located? Also, where aren't they located?

Sweat glands located throughout the majority of the body, except the underarms. Most abundant on the palms of hands and soles of feet.

Where are the arrector pilli muscles and what are they responsible for?

They are connected to each hair follicle and when the contract, it causes the hair to stand on end, so you get goosebumps.

What do sebaceous glands produce? What layer of skin are they located in?

Sebum (oil). They are located within the dermis.

Where are sebaceous glands located?

Everywhere except for the palms of hands and soles of feet. Largerst concentration is on the forehead, nose and back.

When sebum mixes with moisture from the secretions of the sweat glands, what is formed?

The acid mantle.

Name the 5 tissue types found in the skin and where they are located.

Epithelial - epidermis
Connective - dermis
Muscular - muscles
Nerve - nerves
Liquid - blood and lymph

Name some factors that can determine the average rate of cell turnover.

Age, sun exposure, use of exfoliating agents, treatments and skin conditions.

What is the difference between chemical and mechanical exfoliation?

Manual exfoliation involves physically manipulating the skin with a product like a scrub. Chemical exfoliation is the process of using ensymes or AHAs to casue a chemical reaction to remove dead skin cells.

What is transdermal penetration?

The process of molecules passing through the skin via the epidermis

What are the 4 primary ways that products are absorbed into the skin?

Through the pores.
Through the hair follicles.
Through the intercellular cement.
Through the sebaceous and sudoriferous glands.

Intercellular cement

Substances that binds and adds structural strength to the skin. Mediates biochemical reactions between the cells.

Name 6 factors that can affect skin absorption.

Condition of the stratum corneum (thoughest outside layer of the epidermis)
Hydration level
Oiliness of the skin
Size of the products molecules
Temperature of the skin
Size of the pores.

Scar

Result of a lesion the extends into the dermis or deeper.

Wheal

Solid formation above the skin often caused my an insect bite or allergic reaction.

Papule

Small elevation of the skin that does not contain pus.

Pustele

Next progression from Papule. Inflamed bump containing bacterial fluid and pus.

Cyst

Abnormal membranous sac containing a gaseous, liquid or semi-solid substance.

What is an allergic reaction charaterized by a eruption of wheals?

Hives

Define infection.

Pathogenic bacteria or virus entering the body or skin and multiplying to a point where it interferes with the body's normal state.

Herpes Simplex

Highly contagious viral infection. Produces eruptive, blister-like clusters that are typically found on the mucous membranes or skin around the mouth, nose or genitals.

Seborrhea

Condition caused my excess secretion of the sebaceous glands.

What is a more severe form of rosacea called?

Rhinophyma

Acne

A chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands.

Blackhead

AKA open comedo. Open follice with a black surface plug that has been discolored due to the sebum's exposure to oxygen.

Whitehead

AKA closed comedo. Plugged sebaceous gland without a widely dialted opening.

What is the most severe type of acne?

Grade 4

What's another name for milia?

Baby acne

Bromidrosis

Foul smelling perspiration caused by bacteria and yeast that break down the sweat on the surface of the skin.

Miliaria rubra

Acute burning, itching rash casued my excessive heat. A disorder of the sudoriferous glands.

Albinism

A pigmentation disorder. Results in the failure of the skin to produce melanin.

Nevus

A birthmark or congenital mole.

What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic aging?

Intrinsic is the natural aging process. Extrinsic aging is caused by external factors like smoking, drinking and enviroment.

What's the number one factor contributing to extrinsic aging?

Exposure to the sun.

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