dominant part of the life cycle; nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte; diploid generation (2 sets of chromosomes)
the bryophytes and vascular plants, both of which produce embryos; a synonym for plants
a vascular plant; i. True vascular system ii. Trachea = there is xylem, xylem cells are strong, dead at maturity and transport water, directional movement from roots to top of plant 1. Phloem cells are weak, living at maturity, transport stuff of photosynthesis a.From source to where needed
the life cycle; four product of meiosis are spores (n) are the first cells of the gametophyte generation
true stem, true leaf, true root; xylem will stain; annular rings, separate and distinct, go all the way around, most common; helical or spiral thickenings; sclera form, like a ladder, may see little openings; pitted, thick and thin regions, mos evolutionary derived; phloem protected by fibers that protect from mechanical**BOOK** comprises the conductive tissues-- xylem and phloem-- and is embedded in the ground tissue system.
a carbohydrate; the chief component of the cell wall in plants and some protists; an insoluble complex carbohydrate formed of microfibrils of glucose molecules attached end to end
a complex vascular tissue through which most of the water and minerals of aplant are conducted; characterized by the presence of tracheary elements
the food-conducting tissue of vascular plants, which is composed of sieve elements, various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids
a minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass; also used to refer to the entire stomatal apparatus-- the guard cells plus their included pore
strobulus (singular) strobili (plural)
a reproductive structure consisting of a number of modified leaves (sporophylls) or ovule-bearing scales grouped terminally on a stem; a cone. Strobili occur in many kinds of gymnosperms, lycophytes, and sphenophytes
plants haven't changed in morphology; Vascular plants were already numerous and diverse by the Devonian period (408-362 million years ago)
simplest vascular plants; true xylem and phloem, doesn't have true roots, no obvious leaves, synangium (three sporangia that have fused together, will ripedn and release spores, spores carried on air currents) prophyll (a little bit of tissue) Gametophytes are underground
Reproduction (synangium in which spores are produced (sporophyte); spores germinate and form gametophyte which remains underground)
A cluster of sporangia which have become fused in development.; spores are produced within
The club mosses; sporophytes --terminal stroboli is what you see, true vascular system, Roots are underground (branch from perennial rhizomes), homospory:::: Spore Production is by sporophylls (leaf modified for purpose of reproduction, bears sporangium in the axis between the sporophyll and stem, sporangia is borne on the plant and wil lcontain the spores or in stroboli; sporophyte generation, homosporous) Asexual reproduction will occur on a plant on a different shoot (Bulbil is formed between axis and stem which are asexual structures)
the club mosses
Sporophytes-terminal stroboli (What you see); true stems, true roots, true leaves;Roots are underground (branch from perennial rhizomes); spore production (sporophylls, sporophyte generation, homosporous); asexual reproduction (will occur on a plant ona different shoot, bulbil); spore production (homosporous, same size)
perennial means year to year while rhizomes are underground structures that make shoots underground
a modified leaf or leaflike organ that bears sporangia; applied to the stamens and carpels of angiosperms, fertile fronds of ferns, and other similar structures
The location on a stem between the upper surface of a leaf or leafstalk and the stem from which it is growing.
nonphotosynthetic sporophylls are grouped into stroblili, or cones, at the ends of the aerial branches
asexual reproduction in the club mosses; A small bulb that develops from an aerial bud. Bulbils are easily detached and function as a means of vegetative propagation.
all but two genera of living lycophytes belong to this family, most members of which were formerly grouped in the collective genus Lycopodium.
First group with heterospopry; heterosporous (two different sizes; microspores & megaspores) **New female gametophyte develop in walls of megaspore & male gametophyte develop in walls of microspore. ; Life cycle (fertilization gives rise to zygote(2n), Meiosis (ligule shows up for first time, structures think might have adaptation to keep developing microspore moist) megaspore (n); gametophytes are food source for developing sporophyte
in heterosporous plants, a haploid (n_ spores that develops into a female gametophyte; in most groups, megaspores are larger than microspores
A gametophyte that develops within a spore. For example, the female gametophyte of Selaginella is contained within the megaspore and at maturity only a portion, bearing the archegonia, is exposed through the spore wall. Such gametophytes are better able to withstand dry conditions and this pattern of development may be seen as a step in the evolution of the seed habit.
horsetails: one surviving genus; equistem (cell walls contain cellulose and silica) produce terminal strobili; spores wound in elaters (will respond to differences in humidity, open in dry, close when humid); homosporous
widespread in mosit or damp places, by streams, and along the edge of woods. Jointed stems and rough texture. Small, scalelike leaves are whorled at the nodes. When present, branches arise laterally at the nodes and alternate w/ the leaves. Used to scour pots and pans. Roots originate at teh nodes of the rhizomes, which are important in vegetative propagation.
Today the equisetophytes are represented by a single herbaceous genus, equisetum, which consists of 15 species. May be th eoldest surviving genus of plants on Earth.
An underground stem that grows horizontally and, through branching, acts as an agent of vegetative propagation.
In nearly all ferns, the young leaves are coild (circinate); they are commonly referred to as "fiddle-heads). This type of development is known as circinate vernation.
referring to an organism, tissue, or cell with more than two complete sets of chromosomes
what is a tracheophytes, and why is it important
aglaophyton major, with its branches axes and mjultiple sporangia, may represent an intermediate stage -- known as protracheophyte-- in the evolution of vascular plants and should probably not be ratinedin the phylum rhyniophyta
what is a vascular system
The continuous network of vascular tissue, i.e. xylem and phloem , throughout a plant body.
why do seedless vascular plants have true roots, stems, and leaves
so that they can obtain and retain water
describe the similarities seedless vascular plants and bryophytes with respect to the following: reproduction, fertilization, life cycle
Reproduction: (eggs are produced in archegonia; Flagellated sperm produced in antheridia; Oogomy) Fertilization: (water must be present! oogomy) Life Cycle (Sporic meiosis; four product of meiosis are spores (n) are the first cellls of gametophyte generation; zygote (2n) first cell of the sporophyte generation; primary (1*) growth-(in the zygote, there are cells that will form meristems that willd ivide and produce more cells. One of them self and another. Will produce plant body, no other meristem will produce for the plant)
describe the new evolutionary adaptations for the seedless vascular plants with respect to the following: life cycle, vascular system, organization of the plant body, ability to live in dryer climates
Protection against water loss: (Cuticle-does function for the plant, waxy layers and lipids that protect plant from drying out, covers the entire surface, drier, thicker the layer) Well developed stomata-opening between guard cells, let CO2 in and Oxygen and water vapor out
Describe the parts of the vascular system and their functions
True stem, true leaf, true root; xylem-Vascular tissue whose principal function is the upward translocation of water and solutes. Phloem-A vascular tissue whose principal function is the translocation of sugars and other nutrients.
describe the characterisitcs of phylum psilophyta: whisk ferns
SImplest vascular plants: (True xylema nd phloem, doesn't have true roots, no obvious leaves, synangium (three sporangia fused together, will ripena nd release spores, spores carried on air currents) prophyll (a little bit of tissue) gametophytes are underground
describe the characterisitcs of phylum psilophyta: whisk ferns: what is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are the spores produced?
Synangium gives you spores!!!! Psilotum, the whisk fern, is tropic and subtropical in distribution. Sporophyte consists of a dichotomously branchign aerial portion w/ small scalelike structures and a branchign underground portion. It is homosporous, the spores produced in sporangia are aggregated in groups of three on teh ends of short, lateral branches. Germination leads to bisexual gametophytes. The sperm are multiflagellated and require water to swim.
Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses
Extend from arctic regions to torpics. Sporophyte genera consists of branching rhizome. Stem and root are protostelic. Microphylls are usually spirally arranged. Homosporous; the sporangia occur singly on the upper surface of fertile microphylls called sporophylls which bear sporangia. Upon germination, the spores give rise to bisexual gametophytes. Development and maturation of archegonia and antheridia in a gametophyte may require 6-15 years. Water is required for fertilization. BIflagellated sperm swim through water to archegonium. Zygote develops into embryo which grows within the venter of the archegonium.
Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are spores produced?
Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: Describe how and where spores are produced
Sporophylls: the leaf is modified for purpose of reproduction; bears sporangium in the axis between the sporophyll and stem; sporangia is borne on the plant and will contain the spores; or in the strobili
Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: how does asexual production occur in this group
Will occur on a plant on a different shoot; bulbil is formed between axis and stem, it is asexual structures
Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella
first group with heterospory; microspores and megaspores
Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and hwere are spores produced?
4(n) megaspores are produced in the megasporangium of a megasporophyll (female gametophyte) microspores(n) are produced in microsporangium in a microsporophyll (male gametophyte) they undergo oogamy
Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: Describe how spores are produced, and list each of the important features involved
Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: what is the importance of heterospory
two sizes; one is female, one is male
Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: Where do the male and female gametophytes develop? Why is this important? What is the term used to describe?
male in microsporangium and female in megasporangium it is known as heterospory
Phylum Equisetophyta: horsetails: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are spores produced?
Sporangia are borne in groups of 5-10 along the margins of small umbrellalike structures aka sporangiophores, which are clustered into strobili at the apex of the stem. When teh spores are mature, the sporangia contract and split along their inner surface, releasing numerous spores.
Phylum Pteridophyta: Ferns: What is the relationship of leaves and formation of spores? WHat are the structures involved and what is their importance?
Ferns are homosperous; Leaves are fertile, reproductive structures on underside of leaves (indusium is a protective covering which contains many small circles growing on the leaves) Sorus is the collection of sporangium
Describe the ecology of the seedless vascular plants: Mycorrhizae, Allelopathy, Polyploidy
Mycorrhizae; Allelopathy (important how ferns can become dominant, plant puts out a substance which is harmful to the germination of other plants/organisms) polyploidy (ploidy (number of sets of chromosomes))more than one set, makes it a survival feature