BotTest3a

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76 terms

sporophyte generation

dominant part of the life cycle; nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte; diploid generation (2 sets of chromosomes)

gametophyte generation

(n)

embryophytes

the bryophytes and vascular plants, both of which produce embryos; a synonym for plants

tracheophytes

a vascular plant; i. True vascular system ii. Trachea = there is xylem, xylem cells are strong, dead at maturity and transport water, directional movement from roots to top of plant 1. Phloem cells are weak, living at maturity, transport stuff of photosynthesis a.From source to where needed

vascular system

all the vascular tissues in their specific arrangement in a plant or plant organ

sporic meiosis

the life cycle; four product of meiosis are spores (n) are the first cells of the gametophyte generation

true roots, stems, and leaves

make up a true vascular system

vascular system

true stem, true leaf, true root; xylem will stain; annular rings, separate and distinct, go all the way around, most common; helical or spiral thickenings; sclera form, like a ladder, may see little openings; pitted, thick and thin regions, mos evolutionary derived; phloem protected by fibers that protect from mechanical**BOOK** comprises the conductive tissues-- xylem and phloem-- and is embedded in the ground tissue system.

cellulose

a carbohydrate; the chief component of the cell wall in plants and some protists; an insoluble complex carbohydrate formed of microfibrils of glucose molecules attached end to end

xylem

a complex vascular tissue through which most of the water and minerals of aplant are conducted; characterized by the presence of tracheary elements

phloem

the food-conducting tissue of vascular plants, which is composed of sieve elements, various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids

cuticle

waxy or fatty layer on outer wall of epidermal cells, formed of cutin and wax

stomata

a minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems through which gases pass; also used to refer to the entire stomatal apparatus-- the guard cells plus their included pore

strobulus (singular) strobili (plural)

a reproductive structure consisting of a number of modified leaves (sporophylls) or ovule-bearing scales grouped terminally on a stem; a cone. Strobili occur in many kinds of gymnosperms, lycophytes, and sphenophytes

homospory

producing only one kind of spore

heterospory

producing two different spores

devonian age

plants haven't changed in morphology; Vascular plants were already numerous and diverse by the Devonian period (408-362 million years ago)

spore bearing plants

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phylum psilotophyta

heterotrophic, depending on endomycorrhizal fungi for their nutrients.

whisk ferns

simplest vascular plants; true xylem and phloem, doesn't have true roots, no obvious leaves, synangium (three sporangia that have fused together, will ripedn and release spores, spores carried on air currents) prophyll (a little bit of tissue) Gametophytes are underground

psilotum nudum

Reproduction (synangium in which spores are produced (sporophyte); spores germinate and form gametophyte which remains underground)

synangium

A cluster of sporangia which have become fused in development.; spores are produced within

phylum lycophyta

The club mosses; sporophytes --terminal stroboli is what you see, true vascular system, Roots are underground (branch from perennial rhizomes), homospory:::: Spore Production is by sporophylls (leaf modified for purpose of reproduction, bears sporangium in the axis between the sporophyll and stem, sporangia is borne on the plant and wil lcontain the spores or in stroboli; sporophyte generation, homosporous) Asexual reproduction will occur on a plant on a different shoot (Bulbil is formed between axis and stem which are asexual structures)

the club mosses

Sporophytes-terminal stroboli (What you see); true stems, true roots, true leaves;Roots are underground (branch from perennial rhizomes); spore production (sporophylls, sporophyte generation, homosporous); asexual reproduction (will occur on a plant ona different shoot, bulbil); spore production (homosporous, same size)

perennial rhizomes

perennial means year to year while rhizomes are underground structures that make shoots underground

sporophylls

a modified leaf or leaflike organ that bears sporangia; applied to the stamens and carpels of angiosperms, fertile fronds of ferns, and other similar structures

sporangia

a hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced

leaf axil

The location on a stem between the upper surface of a leaf or leafstalk and the stem from which it is growing.

terminal strobili

nonphotosynthetic sporophylls are grouped into stroblili, or cones, at the ends of the aerial branches

bulbil

asexual reproduction in the club mosses; A small bulb that develops from an aerial bud. Bulbils are easily detached and function as a means of vegetative propagation.

lycopodium

all but two genera of living lycophytes belong to this family, most members of which were formerly grouped in the collective genus Lycopodium.

selaginella

First group with heterospopry; heterosporous (two different sizes; microspores & megaspores) **New female gametophyte develop in walls of megaspore & male gametophyte develop in walls of microspore. ; Life cycle (fertilization gives rise to zygote(2n), Meiosis (ligule shows up for first time, structures think might have adaptation to keep developing microspore moist) megaspore (n); gametophytes are food source for developing sporophyte

heterosporous

produce two different sizes of spores; microspore and megaspore

microspores

in heterosporous plants, a spore that develops into a male gametophyte

microsporangia

a sporangium within which microspores are formed

male gametophytes

found in microspores

megaspores

in heterosporous plants, a haploid (n_ spores that develops into a female gametophyte; in most groups, megaspores are larger than microspores

megasporangia

a sporangium in which megaspores are produced aka nucellus

female gametophytes

found in megaspores

endosporic

A gametophyte that develops within a spore. For example, the female gametophyte of Selaginella is contained within the megaspore and at maturity only a portion, bearing the archegonia, is exposed through the spore wall. Such gametophytes are better able to withstand dry conditions and this pattern of development may be seen as a step in the evolution of the seed habit.

phylum equisetophyta

horsetails: one surviving genus; equistem (cell walls contain cellulose and silica) produce terminal strobili; spores wound in elaters (will respond to differences in humidity, open in dry, close when humid); homosporous

horsetails

widespread in mosit or damp places, by streams, and along the edge of woods. Jointed stems and rough texture. Small, scalelike leaves are whorled at the nodes. When present, branches arise laterally at the nodes and alternate w/ the leaves. Used to scour pots and pans. Roots originate at teh nodes of the rhizomes, which are important in vegetative propagation.

equisetum

Today the equisetophytes are represented by a single herbaceous genus, equisetum, which consists of 15 species. May be th eoldest surviving genus of plants on Earth.

phylum peridophyta

STUDY SUMMARY TABLE PAGE 407!!!!

ferns

k

fronds

A large leaf or leaftike structure.

rhizomes

An underground stem that grows horizontally and, through branching, acts as an agent of vegetative propagation.

circenate vernation

In nearly all ferns, the young leaves are coild (circinate); they are commonly referred to as "fiddle-heads). This type of development is known as circinate vernation.

sori (singular sorus)

a group or cluster of sporangia or spores

sporangia

a hollow unicellular or multicellular structure in which spores are produced

indusium

membranous growth of the epidermis of a fern leaf that coers a sorus

allelopathy

the inhibition of one species of plant by chemicals produced by another plant

polyploidy

referring to an organism, tissue, or cell with more than two complete sets of chromosomes

What is the dominant generation of the seedless vascular plants

sporophyte!

what is a tracheophytes, and why is it important

aglaophyton major, with its branches axes and mjultiple sporangia, may represent an intermediate stage -- known as protracheophyte-- in the evolution of vascular plants and should probably not be ratinedin the phylum rhyniophyta

what is a vascular system

The continuous network of vascular tissue, i.e. xylem and phloem , throughout a plant body.

why do seedless vascular plants have true roots, stems, and leaves

so that they can obtain and retain water

describe the similarities seedless vascular plants and bryophytes with respect to the following: reproduction, fertilization, life cycle

Reproduction: (eggs are produced in archegonia; Flagellated sperm produced in antheridia; Oogomy) Fertilization: (water must be present! oogomy) Life Cycle (Sporic meiosis; four product of meiosis are spores (n) are the first cellls of gametophyte generation; zygote (2n) first cell of the sporophyte generation; primary (1*) growth-(in the zygote, there are cells that will form meristems that willd ivide and produce more cells. One of them self and another. Will produce plant body, no other meristem will produce for the plant)

describe the new evolutionary adaptations for the seedless vascular plants with respect to the following: life cycle, vascular system, organization of the plant body, ability to live in dryer climates

Protection against water loss: (Cuticle-does function for the plant, waxy layers and lipids that protect plant from drying out, covers the entire surface, drier, thicker the layer) Well developed stomata-opening between guard cells, let CO2 in and Oxygen and water vapor out

Describe the parts of the vascular system and their functions

True stem, true leaf, true root; xylem-Vascular tissue whose principal function is the upward translocation of water and solutes. Phloem-A vascular tissue whose principal function is the translocation of sugars and other nutrients.

during which age did seedless vascular plants evolve

devonian period

describe the characterisitcs of phylum psilophyta: whisk ferns

SImplest vascular plants: (True xylema nd phloem, doesn't have true roots, no obvious leaves, synangium (three sporangia fused together, will ripena nd release spores, spores carried on air currents) prophyll (a little bit of tissue) gametophytes are underground

describe the characterisitcs of phylum psilophyta: whisk ferns: what is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are the spores produced?

Synangium gives you spores!!!! Psilotum, the whisk fern, is tropic and subtropical in distribution. Sporophyte consists of a dichotomously branchign aerial portion w/ small scalelike structures and a branchign underground portion. It is homosporous, the spores produced in sporangia are aggregated in groups of three on teh ends of short, lateral branches. Germination leads to bisexual gametophytes. The sperm are multiflagellated and require water to swim.

Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses

Extend from arctic regions to torpics. Sporophyte genera consists of branching rhizome. Stem and root are protostelic. Microphylls are usually spirally arranged. Homosporous; the sporangia occur singly on the upper surface of fertile microphylls called sporophylls which bear sporangia. Upon germination, the spores give rise to bisexual gametophytes. Development and maturation of archegonia and antheridia in a gametophyte may require 6-15 years. Water is required for fertilization. BIflagellated sperm swim through water to archegonium. Zygote develops into embryo which grows within the venter of the archegonium.

Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are spores produced?

sporophyll; homosporous

Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: Describe how and where spores are produced

Sporophylls: the leaf is modified for purpose of reproduction; bears sporangium in the axis between the sporophyll and stem; sporangia is borne on the plant and will contain the spores; or in the strobili

Describe the characteristics of phylum lycophyta: the club mosses: how does asexual production occur in this group

Will occur on a plant on a different shoot; bulbil is formed between axis and stem, it is asexual structures

Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella

first group with heterospory; microspores and megaspores

Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and hwere are spores produced?

4(n) megaspores are produced in the megasporangium of a megasporophyll (female gametophyte) microspores(n) are produced in microsporangium in a microsporophyll (male gametophyte) they undergo oogamy

Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: Describe how spores are produced, and list each of the important features involved

k

Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: what is the importance of heterospory

two sizes; one is female, one is male

Describe the characteristics of Phylum Lycophyta Selaginella: Where do the male and female gametophytes develop? Why is this important? What is the term used to describe?

male in microsporangium and female in megasporangium it is known as heterospory

Phylum Equisetophyta: horsetails: What is the name of a genus in this phylum, what are its characteristics, and where are spores produced?

Sporangia are borne in groups of 5-10 along the margins of small umbrellalike structures aka sporangiophores, which are clustered into strobili at the apex of the stem. When teh spores are mature, the sporangia contract and split along their inner surface, releasing numerous spores.

Phylum Pteridophyta: Ferns: What are teh characteristics, and where are spores produced?

k

Phylum Pteridophyta: Ferns: What is the relationship of leaves and formation of spores? WHat are the structures involved and what is their importance?

Ferns are homosperous; Leaves are fertile, reproductive structures on underside of leaves (indusium is a protective covering which contains many small circles growing on the leaves) Sorus is the collection of sporangium

Describe the ecology of the seedless vascular plants: Mycorrhizae, Allelopathy, Polyploidy

Mycorrhizae; Allelopathy (important how ferns can become dominant, plant puts out a substance which is harmful to the germination of other plants/organisms) polyploidy (ploidy (number of sets of chromosomes))more than one set, makes it a survival feature

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