Cyrus the Great
Founded the Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to the Mesopotamian empires.
Persian religion that saw material existence as a battle between forces of good and evil; stressed the importance of moral choice; a last judgement decided the eternal fate of each person.
Culture derived from the Greek civilization that flourised between 800 and 400 B.C.E.
Culture associated with the spread of Greek influence and intermixture with other cultures because of Macedonian conquests by Alexander the Great.
Iliad and Odyssey
Greek epic poems attributed to Homer; defined relations of gods and humans that shaped Greek mythology.
City-state form of government typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the debt burden of farmers; forbade enslavement for debt.
Athenian philosopher of the late 5th century B.C.E.; tutor of Plato; urged reflection of moral decisions; condemned to death for "corrupting" the minds of Athenian youth.
Literally, rule of the people, meaning the free male citizens in Athens; decisions came from the popular assembly without needing any elected representatives.
Athenian political leader during the 5th century B.C.E.; guided development of the Athenian empire.
One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations.
Oracle of Delphi
Person representing the god Apollo; recieved cryptic messages from the god that had predictive value if the seeker could correctly interpret the communication.
5th century B.C.E. wars between the Persian empire and the Greek city-states; Greek victories allowed Greek civilization to define identity.
Alliance formed by Athens to other city-states after the Persian Wars; later taken over by Athens to become Athenian empire.
War from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for control over Greece; Spartans won, but didn't reach political unification of Greece.
Kingdom of northern Greece; originally loosely organized under kings; became centralized under Philip II; conquered Greek city-states.
Ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; conquered Greece.
Alexander the Great
Son and successor of Philip II; conquered Persian Empire and advanced to the borders of India; attempted to combine Greek and Persian culture.
A regional dynasty after the death of Alexander, ruled in Egypt.
A regional dynasty after the death of Alexander, ruled in Persia.
A regional dynasty after the death of Alexander, ruled in Macedon and Greece.
Greek philosopher, teacher of Alexander; taught taht knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in the material world.
Hellenistic philosophers; they emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery.
Greek philosopher; knowledge based upon consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed on ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophy ruled.
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex.
Greek writer of comedies; author of the Frogs.
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Three distinct styles of Hellenistic architecture; listed in order of increasing ornate quality.
Culture that ruled Rome prior to the republic; ruled through powerful kings and well-organized armies; Romans won independence in about 510 B.C.E.
Ordinary citizens, originally Roman families who couldn't trace relationships to one of the major Roman clans.
Two chief executives of the Roman republic; elected annually by the assembly dominated by the aristocracy.
The social relationship whereby wealthy Roman landlords gave protection and financial aid to lesser citizens in exchange for political and labor support.
The basic infantry unit of the Roman military; developed during the republic.
Founded by the Phoenicians in Tunisia; became a major empire in the western Mediterranean; fought the three Punic Wars with Rome for control over Mediterranean, but were defeated and destroyed.
Carthaginian general during the second Punic War; invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally defeated in Africa at the battle of Zama.
The balanced political system of Rome from about 510 to 47 B.C.E., which had an aristocratic senate, a panel of magistrates and popular assemblies.
Plebian officials elected annually during the Roman republic.
Triberius and Gaius Gracchus
Tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; both were killed by order of the Senate.
Roman general during the last century B.C.E., introduced the use of paid volunteers to form the army, instead of citizen conscripts, which formed a military force with personal loyalty to its commander.
Conservative military commander during the last century B.C.E. who attempted to reinforce powers of the Senate and to counter the influence of Marius.
General responsible for the conquest of Gaul, brought his army back to Rome and overthrew the republic; was assassinated in 44 B.C.E. by conservative senators.
Later took the name Augustus; was the grandnephew/adopted son of Julius Caeser; defeated conservative senators after Ceaser's assassination; became the first Roman emperor.
Conservative senator and Stoic philosopher; one of the great orators of his day.
A great Roman epic poet during the Golden Age of Latin literature; author of the Aeneid.
Poet who adapted Greek poetic meters to Latin; author of lyrical poetry laudatory of the empire.
Poet exiled by Augustus for sensual poetry considered out of touch with imperial policies which stressed family virtues.
Historian who linked the Roman Empire to the traditions of the Republican past; stressed the virtues thought to be popular during the early empire.
General principles of lawapplicable to all societies; became a fundamental concept of the Roman Empire's legal system, related to Stoic ethical theory.
Emperor (101-106 B.C.E.) who instituted a more aggressive imperial foreign policy, resulting in the expansion of the empire to its greatest limits.
Jesus of Nazareth
Jewish teacher/prophet; believed by his followers to be the Messiah; executed by the Romans about 30 C.E.
Heads of regional Christian churches.
Early Christian leader; moved away from the insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; used Greek as the language of the church.