C6: Transformation of Economy, Society, Politics, and Religion in Antebellum America

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Tariff of 1816

Nation's 1st protective tariff, designed to protect textile factories against Britain who was selling cloth in the US at bargain prices in an attempt to regain markets lost in the War of 1812

"Era of Good Feelings"

From 1817-25, a period of nationalism and economic growth that followed the War of 1812 in which President James Monroe avoided political controversies

Panic of 1819

First major financial crisis in the US featuring bank failures, unemployment, and a drop in the fields of agriculture and manufacturing

Tallmadge Amendment

Introduced by Pennsylvania Congressman James Tallmadge in 1819, it called for the gradual abolition of slavery in Missouri, but failed to pass the Senate

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Agreement between pro- and anti-slavery factions in which Missouri entered the Union as a slave state while Maine was admitted as a free state

A fire bell in the night...

Phrase used by Thomas Jefferson to describe the dispute resulting from Missouri's petition to be admitted as a slave state in 1819

Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)

Case where Supreme Court ruled that a grant to a private land company was liable to the Contract Clause and, once made, could not be repealed

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)

Supreme Court case that settled the nature of public vs private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation

McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)

Supreme Court case that established two priciples: Constitution gives Congress implied powers in order to create a functional national government, and the Federal government has the right to exercise constitutional power without obstruction by state action

Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)

Supreme Court case led by Chief Justice John Marshall which asserted the Court's authority, under the Constitution, to review state court decisions

Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)

Supreme Court case led by Chief Justice John Marshall which asserted that the federal commerce clause outranked a state law that had granted a monopoly to one group of people

Johnson vs. McIntosh (1823)

Supreme Court case led by Chief Justice John Marshall which asserted that private citizens could not purchase lands from Native Americans

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (1831)

Supreme Court case that ruled in favor of Georgia by finding that the Supreme Court had no legal authority to hear the dispute because Indian tribes are "domestic dependent nations" not foreign nations, left the Cherokees at mercy to the land-hungry Georgia citizens

Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)

Supreme Court case led by Chief Justice John Marshall which recognized that states did not have jurisdiction to pass laws regulating activities of Indian lands located within their state boundaries

Monroe Doctrine (1823)

US policy which stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring US intervention

"King Caucus"

A meeting of party leaders to choose a candidate for each party for the national party convention

American System

Henry Clay's plan which included a protective tariff to stimulate industry, a national bank to provide credit, and federally funded improvements to expand the market for farm products

"Corrupt Bargain"

Term referring to the charge made by the Philadelphia Observer that John Quincy Adams had made a secret deal with Henry Clay to win the presidential election of 1824

Tariff of Abominations

An 1828 tariff on manufactured goods which was resented by the South and declared void by South Carolina

tariff

A tax on imports

Alexis de Tocqueville

French political thinker and historian who published works exploring the effects of the rising equality of social conditions

egalitarianism

Belief in the equality of all people in political, social, or economic life

Jacksonian Democracy

Led by President Andrew Jackson in the 1830s, it was a movement supporting equality and democracy, and opposing aristocracy

"Old Hickory"

Nickname given to General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 for his refusal to abandon his troops after given orders to abort the mission of protecting New Orleans; instead, he personally guided the men back home

"Reign of King Mob"

Describing Andrew Jackson's Presidency, this term refers to the first inauguration that invited the public, resulting in a huge crowd

"Era of the Common Man"

Period from President Jackson's inauguration up to the Civil War which constitutes great change and debate over slavery, Indians, westward mobility, and balance of power between branches of government

Dorr Rebellion (1842)

An uprising in Rhode Island that grew out of dissatisfaction with the existing state constitution, which restricted suffrage to landholders or their eldest sons

"Albany Regency"

1822-38, a well-organized political machine led by New York Senator Martin Van Buren

spoils system

Practice in which public offices with their profit and advantages are at the disposal of the victorious party for its own purposes

"compact theory" of government

An idea upholding that the Federal government is a creation of the states and therefore the states can decide that the federal government has overstepped the limits of authority set forth in a treaty signed by the states

"Kitchen Cabinet"

A group of unofficial advisers to the head of government, a term resulting from the Eaton Affair of Andrew Jackson's presidency

Peggy Eaton Affair

US scandal where Peggy Timberlake and Eaton married shortly after her husband's death with the encouragement of President Jackson, an action disgracing respectable women and provoking Lady Calhoun (wife of VP John Calhoun) to lead an anti-Peggy coalition

Webster-Hayne Debate

An argument instigated when Senator Webster accused South Carolina Senator Robert Hayne of disunoinism after he tried to forge an alliance of the South and West based on a cheap land policy and low tariffs

1832 Tariff

Meant to remedy the conflict created by Tariff of 1828, it reduced duties on citizens for goods from 45% to 35%, still deemed unsatisfactory by the South

Force Bill (1830)

Originally enacted in order to authorize President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to enforce federal tariffs

Black Hawk War (1832)

Conflict fought between US and Native Americans that erupted after Black Hawk, a Sauk leader, led a group of Indians across the Mississippi River hoping to regain land in Illinois

"Five Civilized Tribes"

Five Native American nations - Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole - that were considered intellectual by the settlers

Indian Removal Act of 1830

Legislation passed by Congress that provided funds for resettling Indians in the West, granting the president authority to use force if necessary

Trail of Tears

Name given by the Cherokee Indians to the path they were forced to travel to the West in the 1830s as a result of the Indian Removal Act

Indian Intercourse Act (1834)

Collective name of 6 statutes regulating commerce between Native Americans and non-Indians

Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832-1833)

Agreement signed between US and several chiefs of the Seminole Indians calling for the Seminoles to move west if the land were found to be suitable

Second Seminole War (1835-1842)

Conflict led by Seminole chief Osceola when he refused to move west in regulation with the Payne's Landing Treaty and commenced guerilla tactics against US forces

Nicholas Biddle

Appointed in 1819 by President Monroe as one of the government directors of Bank of the US, he became president in 1823 illustrating his belief in a central banking institution

Maysville Road Bill

1830 request which asked for federal aid for the construction of a road, vetoed by President Jackson because he felt state funding was more appriopriate since the route was wholly in Kentucky

"hard"/"dear" money (specie)

Funding contributed to a political candidate or party that is repetitive rather than one-time; describes gold/silver/platinum coins

"soft" money

One-time funding contributed to a political candidate or party; describes paper currency

Second National Bank of the US

Served as the federally authorized central bank from 1817 to 1836, its largest stockholder being the federal government, its function was to establish sound and stable national currency

"pet banks"

State banks selected by the US Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833

Roger B. Taney

Served as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens

Charles River Bridge vs. Warren Bridge (1837)

Supreme Court case under Chief Justice Taney whose decision opposed business monopolies and encouraged private businesses to compete freely with one another

"King Andrew"

Andrew Jackson, a strong president who used his office to forcefully pursue his goals, was called this by political opponents fearing his use of power

Second Party System

1828-54, the national competetion between Democrats and Whigs, characterized by rapidly rising levels of voter interest

Whigs

A political party, formed in opposition to President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party, which favored supremacy of Congress over presidency

Freemason

Member of a widely distributed fraternal organistatoin arising in late 16th and early 17th century, Free and Accepted Masons, its purpose being mutual assistance and brotherly love among members

Anti-Masonic Movement

A "third-party" in the US that strongly opposed Freemasonry

"Great Triumvirate"

Term for the 3 statesmen who dominated the US Senate in the 1830s-40s: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun

Locofocos

Originally named the Equal Rights Party, a radical faction of the Democratic Party from 1835 to mid-1840s which detested tolls, taxes, banks, hierarchies, governors, and perhaps even laws

Distribution Act (1836)

Law sponsored by Henry Clay that sent the government's surplus tax revenue back to the states on an equalized basis

infrastructure

The fundamental facilities (such as schools, transportation, and communication systems) serving a country, city, or area

Specie Circular (1836)

Executive order, also known as the Coinage Act, issued by President Jackson and carried out by President Martin Van Buren that required payment for the government land to be in gold or silver

"Old Kinderhook"

Reference to Martin Van Buren based on name of his New York home village, he was the 8th US President

Panic of 1837

Major bank crisis in which banks restricted credit and called in loans as depositors rushed to withdraw their funds, which resulted in widespread unemployment, food riots, and failures of road and canal projects

sub-treasury system

Set up in the 1840s for the retaining of government funds in the Treasury and its subtreasuries independently of national banking and financial systems

"penny press"

Cheap newspapers containing sensationalized stories sold to members of the working class in the late 19th century

"Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign

William Henry Harrison's 1840 successful campaign against President Martin Van Buren up for re-election, given this name when a Democratic newspaper wrote an article insulting the Whig Party candidate for his old age

Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too!

Slogan for the Whig Party candidate of the 1840 Presidential election, William Henry Harrison, referring to his military victories

Caroline Affair

Series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the US and Canada (and therefore with Great Britain)

Aroostoock War (1842)

Undeclared confrontation in 1838-39 between the US and Great Britain over the international boundary between Canada and Maine

U.S.S. Creole

A ship that in 1841 transported 135 slaves between Virginia and Louisiana, 19 of which revolted and attempted to overwhelm the American crew

Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)

Agreement between Secretary of State Daniel Webster and the British Foreign Minister Alexander Baring which established boundaries between Maine and New Brunswick

Treaty of Wang Hya (1844)

Agreement with China which extended US trading priveleges equal to those enjoyed by Britain and provided extraterritorial status to Americans in China

extraterritoriality

Exempts certain diplomatic agencies operating in foreign countries from jurisdiction of the host country, instead holding them accountable to their native country's laws

Antebellum South

Refers to the period in US history before the Civil War and after the War of 1812

"King Cotton"

Slogan used by southerners in 1860 to support secession from the US by arguing cotton exports would make an independent Confederacy economically prosperous and would force support from Great Britain and France in a civil war

DeBow's Review

Popular magazine from 1846-84 of agriculture, commercial, and industrial progress and resource in the American South

"Cavalier" image

Represents the peak of white southern manhood, defined by characteristics valuable to southerners like chivalry, honor, bravery, and skill

"slavocracy"

A government composed of or dominated by plantation owners

Greek Revival-style

First national architectural style in the US, popularized by American sentiment towards Greeks in their 1820s fight for independence

"Southern Belle"

Term that epitomized Southern hospitality, cultivation of beauty, and a flirtatious demeanor

yeoman

A free man owning his own farm

Southern paternalism

The Southern attitude that subordinates should be controlled in a benevolent, fatherly, sometimes intrusive way

American Colonization Society

Founded in 1817, this group purchased Liberia in Africa with the intention of solving the Negro problem by transporting freed slaves there

David Walker

An outspoken African-American abolitionist who demanded the immediate end of slavery in the new nation

"Peculiar Institution"

The system of black slavery unique to the southern states of the US

George Fitzhugh

American theories who published racial and slavery-based ideas such that "the negro is but a grown up child"

"Sambo" image

Racial term for a person with a mixed African and Native American heritage

William Harper

A jurist and theorist, he is best remembered as an early representative of pro-slavery ideas

manumission

Release from slavery

Gabriel Prosser

Virginia slave who planned a slave rebellion in 1800 with the intent of creating a free black state, but her planned was betrayed by other slaves, leading to her capture and execution

Denmark Vesey

Black slave in South Carolina who purchased his freedom and planned one of the largest slave rebellion in the US, but was found out and hanged

Nat Turner

Virginia slave who led a slave rebellion in 1831 resulting in 56 deaths, he was after captured and executed

William Lloyd Garrison

US abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal advocating immediate emancipation and civil equality for blacks

The Liberator

Garrison's newspaper, his well-known contribution to the abolitionist movement

American Anti-Slavery Society

Widespread group that organised meetings, arranged the signing of petitions, printed and distributed anti-slavery propaganda

Hinton Rowan Helper

Southern US critic of slavery during the 1850s, he wrote The Impending Crisis of the South and dedicated it to nonslaveholding whites

The Impending Crisis

Book arguing that slavery hurt the economic prospects of nonslaveholders and impeded the growth of the entire region of the South

Frederick Douglass

American social reformer who, after escaping slavery, became leader of the abolitionist movement

Harriet Tubman

African-American Union spy during the American Civil War, who after escaping from slavery, made missions to rescue more than 70 slaves using the Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad

Network of secret routes,safe houses, and the aid of abolitionists, used by 19th century black slaves in the US to escape to free states and Canada

Amistad Case (1839)

US Supreme Court case resulting from the rebellion of slaves on board the Spanish schooner Amistad in 1839

Prigg vs. Pennsylvania (1842)

US Supreme Court case that declared all fugitive slave laws enacted by the states unconstitutional, thus proclaiming slavery a national issue not to be addressed by state governments

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Published in 1852, anti-slavery novel by American Northerner Harriet Beecher Stowe who had spent very little time in the South

Liberty Party

A former US political party formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery, but merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848

James G. Birney

From 1816-18, he served in the Kentucky House of Representatives and in 1836 started an abolitionist weekly publication titled The Philanthropist

"personal liberty" laws

Series of legislations in response to the Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850, designed to make the legal system more fair for all people and ensure safety of freed or escaped slaves

"Free Soil" movement

The influences of the Free Soil Party which opposed the expansion of slavery in the western territories

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