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To study for our science test on April 2.

lava flows

Rivers of red hot lava.

magma

Hot liquid that is created deep underground beneath the earth's crust.

vents

Holes where magma comes to the earth's surface.

pyroclastic material

Magma and pieces of rock that fly through the air in a wreck of destruction during a violent eplosive eruption.

volcano

A build-up of pyroclastic material or magma on earth's surface.

water

This thirst-quinching natural liquid causes eruptions to be more explosive.

silica

This mineral block causes eruptions to be more violent the more it has of it.

volcanic blocks

Large pieces of pyroclastic material that is made up of rock.

blocky lava

a cool stiff lava that can't move very far from the vent.

pahoehoe

A type of lava that is slow-moving, and is like wax. It resembles rope.

Aa

A brittle stiff lava.

volcanic bombs

Blobs of magma that harden in the air.

lava

magma that has been exposed to oxygen.

pillow lava

Lava that forms during underwater eruptions.

lapilli

Pebble sized bits of pyroclastic material that vary between 2 and 64mm in diameter.

volcanic ash

Forms when stiff magma quickly expands. Is less than 2mm in diameter.

shield volcanoes

Built out of layers on runny, non-explosive lava. They are large and non-explosive.

cinder cone volcano

A volcanic cone created entirely from pyroclastic material. They are small and explosive.

composite volcanoes

They are built out of pyroclastic material and layers of runny non-explosive lava. Are sometimes explosive, and sometimes aren't.

stratovolcano

Another name for composite volcano.

crater

A funnel shaped pit and the main vent or a volcano.

caldera

Forms when a magma chamber empties, and the ground above it falls in, creating a large, sinking depression.

fissures

Large cracks in the earth's crust.

lava plateaus

They form similarly to sheild volcanoes; built out of layers of runny, non-explosive lava. They aren't volcanoes.

Mauna Kea

An example of a shield volcano.

Paricutin

An example of a cinder cone volcano.

Mount Fuji

An example of a composite volcano.

extinct volcano

A volcano that hasn't erupted in recorded history and most likely will never erupt again.

dormant volcano

A volcano that doesn't show signs of erupting but has erupted in recorded history.

active volcano

A volcano that shows signs of erupting.

seismograph

An instrument that measures earthquakes. If many earthquakes that are small occur in a reletively short amount of time around a volcano, it may mean that the volcano is going to erupt soon.

tiltmeter

An intrument that measures the difference of the sope of a volcano that can change, leading scientists to believe whether or not it will erupt. It isn't 100% accurate.

rift

A deep crack.

hot spots

When tecontic plates meet directly below a mantle plume, it forms these.

mantle plumes

columns of rising magma.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: A rift and a fissure are the same thing.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera is smaller than a crater.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera and a crater are formed similarly.

true

TRUE OR FALSE: A caldera is much larger than a crater.

true

TRUE OR FALSE: Aa is a stiff, brittle lava.

true

TRUE OR FALSE: The more silica, the larger the eruption.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: The less water, the larger the explosion.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is another name for shield volcano.

true

TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is another name for a composite volcano.

true

TRUE OR FALSE: A stratovolcano is not a cinder cone volcano.

false

TRUE OR FALSE: Cinder cone volcanoes are most often the biggest type of volcano.

cinder cone volcano

CHARACTERISTICS: A small, explosive volcano that is made entirely from pyroclastic material.

shield volcano

CHARACTERISTICS: A gigantic, non explosive volcano made from repeated layers of non-explosive lava.

composite volcano

CHARACTERISTICS: A combination completely of the other 2 types of volcanoes, forms by both repeated layers of runny lava and by pyroclastic material, its' size can vary, and can be both explosive and non-explosive.

divergent boundary

GOOD TO KNOW: This boundary almost always forms a non-explosive volcano.

convergent boundary

GOOD TO KNOW: This boundary usually forms explosive volcanoes.

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