Children grow more slowly in early childhood than they did the first 2 years
As information of synapes, myelination, cell death, and synaptic pruning occur, preschoolers improve in a wide variety of skills -- physical coordination, preception, attention, memory, language, logical thinking, and imagination.
Heredity and hormones
Genes influence the growth by controlling the bodies production of hormones
Growth Hormone (GH)
A pituitary hormone that from birth on is necessary for the development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals
Emotional well being
preschoolers with very stressful home lives suffer more respiratory and intestinal illnesses and more unintentional injuries than others
Gross motor development
less top-heavy now, balances improve, running, jumping, skipping
Fine motor development
Self helping skills: young children gradually become self sufficient at dressing and feeding
Piaget's Theory: The preoperational stage
advances in mental represintation: 1-- language development (he didn't believe it played a major role in cognitive development), 2-- Development of make believe play (he believed that through pretending, young children practice and strength newly acquired representational schemes)
Limitations of preoperational thought
1. Egocentrims - inability to distinguish between one's own perceptions and someone else. 2. Inability to conserve: the understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward apperances change.
Animistic thinking (animism)
tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive - faliure to distinguish the appropriate occasions for using family
preschoolers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
children are active learners. But they do not strive alone. Their efforts are embedded in a social context.
talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate.
Adjusting the quality of support during a teaching session to fit the childs current level of performance. Direct instruction is offered when a task is new; less help is provided as competence increases
sustained attention continues to improve throughout early childhood. However, preschoolers still spend relatively short times involved in tasks and are easily distracted
Preschoolers recognition memory is remarkably good. However, their recall is much poorer than their recognition
Memory for familiar events
preschoolers remember and can tell their familiar and/or related events in terms of scripts
Memory for one-time events (autobiographical memory)
preschoolers autobiographical memories develop especially when they are asked questions about their experiences in the elaborative style