The myocardial fibers shorten, making the chamber smaller and forcing blood out. In the cardiac cycle, the atrials precede the ventricles, which pumps blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
The period of cardiac muscle relaxation, alternating in the cardiac cycle with contraction.
The two sounds "lubb" and "dupp" heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. They arise from valve closure and muscular structures in the heart and are technically called S1 and S2. Third and fourth heart sounds may be present in some heart diseases.
The first sound (systolic), which is prolonged and dull, results from the contraction of the ventricle, tension of the atrioventricular valves, and the impact of the heart against the chest wall and is synchronous with the apex beat and carotid pulse. This is heard as the "lubb" and is the loudest at the apex of the heart.
The second sound (diastolic) is heard, resulting from the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves. This sound is short and high pitched. This is heard as the "dupp" and is the loudest at the base of the heart.
normal sinus rhythm
The normal heart rhythm whose pacemaker is in the sinoatrial node and whose conduction through the atria, atrioventricular node, and ventricles is unimpaired. The interval between complexes is regular, the ventricular rate is 60 to 100, there are upright P waves in leads I and II, a negative P wave in lead AVR, a P-R interval of 0.12 to 0.20 sec, and one P wave preceding each QRS complex.
The transmission of data electronically to a distant location.
apex of the heart
The tip of the left ventricle, opposite the base of the heart. This moves considerably with each heartbeat, and the point of maximal impulse (PMI) can be felt on the chest wall..
Cramping or pain in leg muscles brought on by a predictable amount of walking (or other form of exercise) and relieved by rest. This symptom is a marker of peripheral vascular disease of the aortoiliac, femoral, or popliteal arteries. It may be present in patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, for example, with arterial insufficiency in the coronary or carotid circulations as well as the limbs.
A temporary deficiency of blood flow to an organ or tissue. The deficiency may be caused by diminished blood flow either through a regional artery or throughout the circulation.
An oppressive pain or pressure in the chest caused by inadequate blood flow and oxygenation to heart muscle. It is usually produced by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and in Western cultures is one of the most common emergent complaints bringing adult patients to medical attention. It typically occurs after (or during) events that increase the heart's need for oxygen (e.g., increased physical activity, a large meal, exposure to cold weather, or increased psychological stress).
The point of maximum impulse felt or heard over the apex of the heart
An abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels. It may be soft, blowing, rumbling, booming, loud, or variable in intensity. They may be heard during systole, diastole, or both.
An abnormal tremor accompanying a vascular or cardiac murmur felt on palpation.
An adventitious sound of venous or arterial origin that sounds like a low-pitched, or murmurlike on auscultation.
Evidence of fluid in soft tissues, esp. those of dependent body parts like the lower extremities. When pressed firmly with a finger, tissues that are swollen with extravascular fluid retain the shape of the depression produced by the finger.
An abnormal accumulation of tissue fluid (potential lymph) in the interstitial spaces.
Enlargement of lymph nodes (LN), typically to greater than 1.5 cm. The increased size is caused by activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and phagocytic white blood cells within the node or by invasion of the node by tumor.
A lesion of the skin or mucous membranes marked by inflammation, necrosis, and sloughing of damaged tissues caused by stoppage of the normal flow of fluids, as of the blood or urine, or feces.
An enlarged, dilated superficial vein. This condition may occur in almost any part of the body but is most common in the lower extremities and in the esophagus.
Pain in the calf when the foot is passively dorsiflexed. This is a physical finding suggestive of venous thrombosis of the deep veins of the calf; however, diagnostic reliability is limited.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
A blood clot in one or more of the deep veins of the legs (the most common site) or the veins of arms, pelvis, neck, axilla, or chest. The clot may damage the vein or may embolize to other organs (e.g., the heart or lungs). Such emboli are occasionally fatal.
The normal sounds associated with movement of the intestinal contents through the alimentary tract. Auscultate the abdomen for this because it may provide valuable diagnostic information. Absent or diminished sounds may indicate paralytic ileus or peritonitis. High-pitched tinkling sounds are associated with intestinal obstruction.
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. This may be caused by interference in venous return of the heart (as in congestive heart failure), obstruction of flow in the vena cava or portal vein, obstruction in lymphatic drainage, disturbances in electrolyte balance (as in sodium retention), depletion of plasma proteins, cirrhosis, malignancies (e.g., ovarian cancer), or infections within the peritoneum.
The protrusion of an anatomical structure through the wall that normally contains it. This may be caused by congenital defects in the formation of body structures, defects in collagen synthesis and repair, trauma, or surgery. Conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressures (e.g., pregnancy, obesity, weight lifting, straining [the Valsalva maneuver], and abdominal tumors) may also contribute to this formation.
The state of being stretched out and inflated.
Having a spherically depressed or hollow surface.
A progressive wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, esp. the alimentary canal.
Gas in the digestive tract. Expelling of gas from a body orifice, esp. the anus.
Costovertebral Angle Tenderness
Discomfort at the angle formed on each side of the trunk by the junction of the last rib with the lumbar vertebrae; associated with kidney pain.
A body defense method to prevent movement of an injured part, esp. spasm of abdominal muscles when an examiner attempts to palpate inflamed areas or organs in the abdominal cavity.
Tenseness; immovability; stiffness; inability to bend or be bent.
It is a clear hollow note like that of a drum. It indicates a pathological condition of the lung or of a cavity, may be heard with abdominal distention with gas
Loss of bowel motility, occasionally resulting in intestinal obstruction. It is characterized by loss of the forward flow of intestinal contents, often accompanied by abdominal cramps, increasing abdominal distention, obstipation or constipation, vomiting, electrolyte disturbances, and dehydration.
Curved evenly; resembling the segment of a sphere.
The production or intensification of pain when pressure that has been applied during palpation (esp. of the abdomen) is suddenly released.
The cardiac region located at the second intercostal space at the right sternal border - at the base of the heart
This cardiac region located at the second or third intercostal space at the left of the sternal border - the base of the heart
This cardiac region located on the fourth or fifth intercostal space at the left lower sternal border.
This cardiac region located at the fifth intercostal space near the left midclavicular line - the apex of the heart.
The cardiac region located at the third to fifth intercostal space at the left sternal border.
Can be palpated medial to the biceps tendon in and above the bend of the elbow and is the major artery that supplies the arm.
Can be palpated on the lateral aspect of the wrist and supplies blood to the hand.
Is not easily palpated because the artery is deeper. It is located on the medial aspect of the wrist.
Can be palpated just under the inguinal ligament and is the major supplier of blood to the legs.
Can be palpated behind the knee.
dorsalis pedis pulse
Can be palpated on the great toe side of the top of the foot.
posterior tibial pulse
Can be palpated behind the medial malleolus of the ankle
Can be palpated between the top of the ear and the eye.
Is measured ideally when a patient is standing but can also be measured when a patient is in the supine position. Using a tape measure use the umbilicus as a starting point. Used to evaluate the progression and treatment of distention.
base of the heart
Can be auscultated over the second or third left intercostal space.
lymph nodes located approximately 3 cm above the elbow on the inner (medial) aspect of the arm and drains the lower arm and hand
superficial inguinal nodes
drain the legs, external genitalia, and lower abdomen and buttocks
this group of superficial inguinal nodes is located on the anterior thigh just under the inguinal ligament
this group of superficial inguinal nodes is located close to the great saphenous vein
lymph node located above the clavicle
lymph node located just below the clavicle
the lateral axillary lymph node
the central axillary lymph node
the posterior axillary lymph node
the anterior axillary lymph node
Abdominal region: this is the top region above the belly button
Abdominal region: this is the region that is in the dead center of the abdomen, it contains the belly button
Abdominal region: this is the region that lies above the genitalia, and below the belly button
fibroserous sac that surrounds the heart
membranous outer layer of the pericardium that is attached to the central part of the diaphragm and the posterior part of the sternum; secrets fluid to provide for friction free movement
separates the right and left side of the heart
thin walled and receive blood - contract simultaneously
thick walled and pump blood out
the outer layer of the wall of the heart.*Also known as the visceral pericardium
the inner layer of the heart.
the muscular middle layer of the wall of the heart.