a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
Was a Pharaisee sent to destroy the Christians but on the road to Damascus had a conversion experience. Paul emphasized justification by faith alone over works. Paul emphasized life in the spirit - as in rewards after death will be great for who believe in Christ.
An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God--divine love through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a. Followed an ascetic routine (denial of physical desire to gain a spiritual goal), dedicating themselves to fasting, prayer, meditation on the Qur'an, and the avoidance of sin.
"Pure ones." An order within Sikhism to which most Sikhs belong, founded by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 in defence against Mughal oppression.
"Holy Death"; death by self-starvation, valued in Jainism as a noble end to a long life of virtue and detachment
the Sanskrit word for suffering, which Buddhism states is the primary condition of life. The first Nobel truth.
Prominent in the Mahayana sect. of Buddhism. Bodhisattva's are individuals on the 'road' to becoming Buddhas, a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana, but is constantly reborn to help others; a heavenly being of compassion.
Confucian teaching that harmony resulted in people accepting their place in society: Husband to wife, father to son, friend to friend, older brother to younger brother, and ruler to subject. Each role is complementary to the other.
The Confucian virtue of ____ ("benevolence" or "humaneness") means that a person will always do what is right, regardless of the consequences.
the basic exposition of Daoist beliefs traditionally ascribed to Laozi, a sage who lived during the 6th century BC. Daodejing envisioned dao as the original force of the cosmos, a principle that governs the world. Daoism is about being in harmony with nature more so than with society; emphasis on intuition rather than reason.
Gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees
4 nobel truths
central teaching of Buddhism, to live is to suffer, suffering is caused by desire, the cessation of suffering can be achieved, the solution is the 8 fold path
(JUDAISM), Form of Judaism, which emerged during the first century AD after the expulsion of Jews from Judea under the Babylonian exile. Under the leadership of the rabbis, Jewish practice was carried on through oral law and was equated equal authority with the written Torah and enabled Judaism to evolve flexibly. Largely grew out of the Diaspora feature of Judaism.
"not self". In contrast to the Hindu concept of atman, Buddhist do not beleive that there is an essential self that moves from one body to another as we are reincarnated.
Impermanence. The idea that everything is changing all the time; idea that the whole of reality is like a verb, not a noun, changing at every instant. The world consists of events, not things. Even the mountains are changing, and we are too. We never step in the same river twice...
The Book of the Dead in Tibetan. Read to those in between and even after death to direct them to enlightenment.
The Five classics of Confucianism. Less of a scared text than usage for study. Includes poems, songs, hymns.
Branch of Shinto, closely connected to Buddhism and Shinto. Syncretism between Shintoism and buddhism. Worshipped along with Buddha's and Boddhisattus.
Sacred rituals performed by the Catholic church. There are seven: baptism, confirmation, marriage, communion, penance, holy order (that is, becoming a priest), and extreme unction (words spoken at the death bed).
The migration of the muslims from Mecca to Yathrib, later known as Medina, the city of the prophet.
..., (Hinduism) the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)
5 pillars of Islam
The first is Shahadah, a phrase that is repeated three times to convert: "There is no God but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God." The second is prayer, which is done five times a day in the direction of the Ka'bah. The third is almsgiving. The fourth is fasting during Ramadan, the month that the scripture was revealed to Muhammad, and the faith is hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Guru Granth Sahib
The Adi Granth. After the death of the 10th Guru Gobind Singh, he declared that the text will be the Guru.
A collection of five holy books comprimising the, hebrew "instruction" - generally, the revelation of god's will to the people; more specifically, the divine law, especially as contained in the first five books of the bible, which together are often called the torah.
earliest Hindu scriptures, associated with the Aryans. Collectively or any one of the four Vedas, the Ṛg, Yajur, Sāma, and Atharva.
In Genesis, God created the world in 6 days. On the 7th day, Saturday, he took rest, this day is known to Jews as the Sabbath. A day of rest.
A Jewish festival, fifty days after Passover, Celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai. On the fiftieth day after the Resurrection, the Holy Spirit was manifested, given, and communicated to the Apostles, fulfilling the mission of Christ. This is the "birthday" of the Church.
Collection of oral tradition. Belief that besides the 10 commandements given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, there was an oral tradition passed down that was also God's law. A legal code
A collection of Mishnah and the Gemarah compiled together in a book. 2 volumes exist - the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmud.
Bounded by Israel Ben Eliezer. Emphasized piety, joy and celebration and appealed to a mass audience as it declared that it does not matter if you can read the Talmud, all that matters is if you can connect with God spiritually.
After the Maccabean revolt, had to cleanse the temple of the Seleucids. The miracle being that they only had enough oil to burn for one day but it lasted 8 days.
The Holy Trinity
Otherwise known as the Latin shield developed in Roman Catholicism, which declared that God is the father, the son, and the holy ghost.
Latin for 'faith alone,' emphasized by Martin Luthur during the Protestan reformation. Similar to Paul's proclamation of faith over works.
In 6th century Arabia, largely tribal society and polytheistic. The Hanifs were known as the pious ones, such as the Jews and the Christians who believe in one god.
Located in Mecca. Considered a holy structure. , sacred stone in the center of Mecca around which muslims are to walk during their pilgrimage
The scared text that is transcribed to Muhammad from God himself. Considered 'divine' and timeless.
struggle to uphold or defend faith. Inner Jihad is a struggle to make one self more Islamic, outer Jihad is a struggle to make one's society more Islamic.
Sanskrit for "that which was heard," in reference to the Vedas. Considered sacred scripture as it was the scripture that was heard from the divine source - Brahman. ' Revealed scripture.' But not in the same importance as the bible or the Qur'an.
The caste system that arose from the Vedic hymns. The story of the sacrifice of the 'cosmic person,' Purusha.
Laws of Manu
The dharma for the caste system. The top three caste, the student, householder, forest dweller, and sannyasin (outsider.) Includes proper conduct...
the nectar of immortality. Guru nanak when emerged from the Vein River claimed that God gave him this drink.
5th Guru, Built the golden temple, also compiled the Adi Granth. Also, the first of the Guru's to face persecution - first instance of martyrdom which shifted the Sikh community to be more self-conscious and protective.
Guru Gobind Singh
10th Guru, last human Guru. Created the order of the Khalsa, a group of elite, 'pure' Sikhs. Originally intended to defend the Sikh community from the oppression of the Mughal empire.
Panj kakke or 5Ks
Kes - uncut hair, Kangha - wooden comb for order, Kirpan - sword for courage, Kara - silver ring to show loyalty to god, Kachh - shorts for chasity.
Builders of bridges across the ocean of birth and death (samsara). There are 24 in each cycle.