psyc200 final

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the focus of postformal thought, the possible fifth stage of cognition is:

problem finding

which of the following statistics is currently true in the US?

the divorce rate is half the marriage rate

the growth spurt typically occurs during puberty in the following order

weight, height, muscle

compared to individuals with a college education, those without a college education tend to be more

likely to smoke

which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

completed suicide

in an essay, Michelle begins by writing that knowing the truth sets people free. In her next paragraph, she opposes this idea with the idea that knowing the truth often involves learning about limitations and constraints on freedom. In her third paragraph, Michelle integrates these two perspectives. Michelle's essay best demonstrates

dialectical thinking

schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which a person becomes overwhelmed by

all of the answers are correct:
disorganized and bizarre thoughts
delusions
hallucinations

pressure to conform to one's friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as

peer pressure

marriage between people of different backgrounds is called

heterogamy

using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognitive, or psychological well-bring is called drug:

abuse

Barrett is serving a 2-year mission for his chuch at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett is currently experiencing the identity status of:

moratorium

Girls who become pregnant before the age of 15 are more likely to experience:

high blood pressure and spontaneous abortion

seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voiced their disapproval he replied, "Whatever." Andrew's response indicated identity:

diffusion

What is the term for a sexual encounter that does not involve intimacy or commitment?

hookup

The day-night cycle that occurs approximately every 24 hours is the:

circadian rhythm

which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?

the family sharing meals together

Justice is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justice tends to ask critical questions such as "Why can't I have wine with dinner? You do" or "I don't understand why I'll be able to vote when I'm 18, but I have to wait until I'm 21 to buy alcohol!" This type of thinking is demonstrating Justice's

hypothetical thought

______ disorders include panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Anxiety

William arrived at a large, culturally diverse university from a small isolated town, excited to start his college education. Quickly though, he because fearful and suspicious of students different than himself. William needs to:

use cognitive flexibility to counter the stereotypes he has learned

Emily's parents were becoming exasperated. She just changed majors for the third time since her freshman year in college. As a junior, she would have additional prerequisite credits to complete to prepare for the new major. Emily is demonstrating

cognitive flexibility

Recent research indicates that attitudes about the purpose of sex fall into which of the following three categories?

reproduction, relationship and recreation

A 15-year old girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice is an example of:

adolescent egocentrism

Which of the following statements about couples who cohabitate before they are married is true?

they are more likely to divorce if they marry

Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. Abbie is demonstrating:

parental monitoring

Bill spends hundreds of dollars a month buying lottery tickets hoping to get rich because he barely earns minimum wage. Bill is aware that the odds of winning any amount in the lottery are 1 in 7 million. Bill is guilty of

base rate neglect

Alicia is a chemical engineer who has endured sexism throughout her career. Her 14-year-old daughter would also like to go into chemical engineering. Alicia supports her daughter's goals but worries that she, too, will be subjected to _________ as Alicia has been

stereotype threat

which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship between hormones and emotions?

the relationship is reciprocal—that means that sometimes hormones trigger emotions, but emotions can trigger the release of hormones as well.

Brian has met three girls who tell him that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love Titanic. Brian has just used

inductive reasoning

George and Emily are newly engaged to be married. The component of love that is probably most intense at this time is:

passion

when the absence of a drug creates a craving to satisfy a physiological or psychological need, that is a sign of drug:

addiction

Which of the following abilities is a hallmark of adult adaptive thought?

applying both objective and subjective thinking to real-life problems

A person's set point is affected by:

age, genes, diet, hormones, and exercise

In demand/withdraw interactions, women tend to be more_____ and men more______.

demanding; withdrawing

Michael eats when he's hungry and stops eating when he's full. His body weight remains stable and is regulated by his

set point

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, text messages, or Web postings is called:

cyberbullying

Sixteen year old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating

the invincibility fable

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the:

spermarche

of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?

prefrontal cortex

Moral values are powerfully affected by circumstances including:

national background and culture

When a woman talks about her problems with a friend, she usually wants:

sympathy or understanding

Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting:

identity foreclosure

In the US, emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. Which of the following statements is true?

They are still likely to receive financial support from their parents

When Patty looks in the mirror, she sees an overweight girl. She is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds. She does aerobics for at least two hours daily and eats very little. Patty mostly suffers from:

anorexia nervosa

Family conflict and stress:

may cause the early onset of puberty

Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver's license. When his parents ask him why he things he should have driving privilidges, he answers, "because I know other kids who do it, and its stupid that I have to wait another 3 months until I turn 16." This is an example of what type of thinking?

intuitive

In the CARDIA study that followed 18- to 30-year olds into middle age, those who were the least fit:

were four times as likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later

According to Erikson, once emerging adults have established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crisis?

intimacy vs isolation

At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made more friends with serious musical interests and drifted away from friends with other interests. He is exhibiting peer:

selection

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:

form a coherent identity

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:

her belief in an imaginary audience

When our present population is sorted according to age, the resulting graph is approaching a demographic:

square

The notion that DNA regulates the aging process is referred to as the

genetic clock

The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood

is temporarily counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence

Jim who was 60, couldn't understand why he kept slowly gaining weight. He wasn't eating any more than usual and he maintained his regular exercise routine. What explains his weight gain?

his metabolism slowed down by a third between emerging and late adulthood

The crucial stratification variable in the well-being of the elderly may be:

income

Carlos is 35 years old and is trying to learn English for the first time. He is experiencing more difficulty than if he were 5 years old because:

his fluid intelligence is needed to learn new materials

Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchildren when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grand parenting style is:

companionate

When dealing with stressors, men tend to be______ in their style, while women tend to be______.

problem-focused; emotion-focused

Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:

improves with age

Dorothy has begun keeping a detailed journal that includes stories of her childhood to early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down to her grandchildren as a family history and so that they can know her in a more intimate way. Her journal writing is a form of:

life review

The term "male menopause" is sometimes used to refer to:

a dip in testosterone in response to anxiety or sexual inactivity

most elder abuse is committed by:

adult children

Which of the following statements about cellular aging is true?

Aging may be caused by the inevitable loss of the ability of cells to duplicate perfectly

Dementia is

the pathological loss of brain functioning

which of the following organized interest groups is the largest in the US?

AARP

After a decade or two, most married couples find that

happiness increases as children become more independent

Compared to the formerly married, what level of income, family welfare, and seld-esteem do people of the same age who are still married or who have always been single tend to have?

higher

Hal and Darcy endured many stressful years in their marriage resulting in much unhappiness. Over time, their marriage rebounded and improved. Research indicates that:

learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness

What did Baltes and Baltes call the capacity of adults to use their intellectual strengths to compensate for declining capacities?

selective optimization with compensation

who is most likely to be the healthies and happiest at age 70?

Annette, who is living with her husband
or possibly:
Jan, who never married and lives alone

Vascular dementia is caused by

insufficient supply of blood to the brain

The groups of people who traditionally live to advanced age usually:

work throughout life

When human cells are grown under laboratory conditions that encourage them to grow and divide, cells:

from human embryos stop dividing after about 50 divisions

In about what proportion of cases can the cause of a couple's infertility be traced to the man?

1/3

The term 'g' refers to:

general intelligence

A major safegaurd of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:

maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly

When Rob graduated from college, he found a good job, a nice apartment, and made new friends. Now, three years later, his company went bankrupt and he moved back into his parent's home. We can expect their relationship to:

worsen

A disease that can produce dementia is:

AIDS

The most common cause of dementia is:

Alzheimer disease

When students take multiple-choice exams, they are using the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls

analytic

The leading cause of caner deaths in North America is ______ cancer

lung

Data from the Seattle Longitudinal Study demonstrated that as adults grow older, their intellectual functioning increases if they:

do paid work that is intellectually challenging

The leading cause of death for men and women is:

cardiovascular disease

What happens to bones with age?

The become more porous

The most important buffer against the loss that comes retirement and widowhood is having:

at least one close friend

Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were activly involved in the community. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis:

prefer to age in place

The very ends of chromosomes in cells that may be correlated with longevity are known as:

telomeres

A sudden drop in sex hormones in a woman's bloodstream along with cessation of ovulation and menstruation signals:

menopause

The difference between ADLs and IADLs is that:

IADLs require some intellectual competence

Which of the following statements about fluid intelligence is true?

it is quick and flexible

Limiting the time a person spends being ill or inform is referred to as:

compression of morbidity

When the thought required for an action becomes routine, and it appears that most aspects of the task are performed instinctively, the performace of the task is:

automatic

one function of working memory is

temporary storage of information for conscious use

because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, the middle-aged adults have been called the:

sandwich generation

research indicates that remarried people:

have a greater chance of divorce than to people in first marriages

Autopsies show that the brains of Alzheimer victims

have a proliferation of plaques and tangles

When in a relationship is domestic violence most likely to appear?

early in the relationship

Which of the following behaviors is a characteristic of frontal lobe dementia?

disinhibited behavior

A researcher is compiling data on the incidence of all types of diseases. These data reflect:

morbidity

Cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. As a single parent with three children, she needs at least a liveble wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the:

extrinsic rewards of work

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