Vascular System

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Anastomosis/Anastomoses

communication of blood vessel with another blood vessel by a connecting channel

Arteriole

smaller artery that branches off an artery and connects with a capillary

Atherosclerosis

narrowing and blockage of arteries by a buildup of plaque

Artery

type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Bacteremia

bacteria traveling within the vascular system

Capillary

smaller blood vessel that branches off an arteriole to supply blood directly to tissue

Embolus/Emboli

foreign material or thrombus traveling in the blood that can block the vessel

Hematoma

bruise that results when a blood vessel is injured and a small amount of blood escapes into the surrounding tissue and clots

Hemorrhage

large amounts of blood that escape into the surrounding tissue with out clotting when a blood vessel is seriously injured

Plaque

substance which consists of cholesterol (mainly), calcium, clotting proteins, and other substances that can be found lining arteries

Plexus

network of blood vessels, usually veins

Thrombus/Thrombi

clot that forms on inner blood vessel wall

Vein

type of blood vessel that travels to the heart, carrying blood

Venous Sinus

blood filled space between two layers of tissue

Venule

smaller vein that drains that capillaries of the tissue area and then joins larger veins

Blood supply to the brain comes from

internal carotid artery and vertebral arteries (arteries located near spine)

Left side of body blood supply comes from

common carotid artery and subclavian artery which arise directly from aorta

Right side of body blood supply comes from

common carotid artery and subclavian artery which are both branches from the brachiocephalic of aorta

Carotid sinus

swelling just below the common carotid artery. bifurcates into the internal and external common carotid

Subclavian

arises lateral to the common carotid

Internal carotid

source for opthalmic artery, supplies eye, orbit and lacrimal glands supply intracranial and extracranial structures. a mjor destination is the upper extremities (arm).

External carotid artery has

8 branches, located in 3 areas

Anterior portion of external carotid artery contains

1. superior thyroid artery 2. lingual artery 3. facial artery

Branches of Superior thyroid artery

1. superior laryngeal artery 2. infrahyoid 3. sternocleidomastoid

Superior laryngeal artery

supplies the mucous and muscles of the larynx

Infrahyoid

supplies the infrahyoid muscles (sternothryoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid)

Sternocleidomastoid

supplies the sternocleidomastoid muscle

Branches of Lingual artery

1. sublingual branch 2. dorsal lingual branch 3. deep lingual branch 4. suprahyoid

Sublingual branch

floor of mouth, sublingual salivary glands, mucous membranes, and adjacent muscles. also mylohyoid muscle

Dorsal lingual branch

supplies base and body of tongue, tonsils, soft palate and epiglottis

Deep lingual branch

apex of tongue, along inferior surface of the tongue, sublingual and mylohyoid glands

Suprahyoid

suprahyoid muscles (geniohyoid, mylohyoid, stylohyoid and digastric)

Branches of Facial artery

1. ascending palatine 2. submental 3. inferior labial 4. superior labial 5. angular artery

Facial artery

below the angle of mandible, curves over border across face where a pule point can be found. terminates at the medial canthus of eye

Ascending palatine

supplies muscular wall of pharynx and deep muscles of vertebral column, soft palate, palatine muscles and tonsils. serious blood loss occurs if injured during tonsillectomy

Submental

runs toward chin, supplies submandibular salivary gland and lymph nodes, mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric

Inferior labial

lower lip, depressor anguli oris

Superior labial

upper lip

Angular artery

terminal branch at base of nose and eyes. supplies skin of nose and eyelids

An anastomosis or additional connection occurs between

the angular and opthalmic artery of the internal carotid artery. connects the internal and external common carotid arteries. function is accessory blood supply

Medial portion of external carotid artery contains

1. ascending pharyngeal artery

Ascending pharyngeal artery

supplies pharyngeal walls, soft palate and meninges of brain. has anastomosis with ascending palatine artery

Posterior portion of external carotid artery contains

1. occipital artery (hypoglossal nerve XII) 2. posterior auricular artery 3. superficial temporal artery

Occipital artery

supplies suprahyoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles, scalp, back of head. has anastomosis with vessels of neck to allow for alternative routes if carotid becomes blocked

Posterior auricular artery

supplies parotid and some suprahyoid, stylohyoid above the level and tip of styloid process, supplies the internal ear with its auricular branch and amstoid cells by the sylomastoid artery

Superficial temporal artery

terminal branch, arises within parotid gland, supplies the parotid. pulse on posterior border of zygomatic arch. has branches to serve the external ear, TMJ and scalp above the ear

Branches of superficial temporal artery

1. transverse facial artery 2. middle temporal artery 3. frontal and parietal artery

Transverse facial artery

terminal branch supplies parotid and masseter muscle

Middle temporal artery

supplies the temporalis muscle

Frontal and Parietal artery

supplies scalp in that area

Maxillary artery sits in

the pterygopalatine fossa (cone shaped paired depression deep to the infratemporal fossa, located between the pterygoid process and maxillary tuberosity)

Branches of maxillary artery

1. mandibular 2. pterygoid 3. pterygopalatine

Mandibular artery

behind neck of mandible

Branches of mandibular artery

1. middle meningeal 2. accessory meningeal 3. inferior alveolar artery (dental branches and alveolar branches) 4. mental branch 5. incisive branch (dental and alveolar branches) 6. lingual branch 7. mylohyoid branch

Middle meningeal artery

passes through foramen spinosum, supplies the meninges of brain and bones of skull

Accessory meningeal artery

passes through foramen ovale, supplies trigeminal ganglion

Inferior alveolar artery

runs the mandibular canal, arises at infratemporal fossa

Dental branches of inferior alveolar artery

supply the pulp tissue of mandibular posterior teeth

Alveolar branches of inferior alveolar artery

supply the periodontium of mandibular posterior teeth

Mental branch

at mental foramen, supplies skin of chin and mucous membranes of lower lip. has anastomosis with inferior alveolar artery

Dental branches of incisive

supply the pulp tissue of mandibular anterior teeth

Alveolar branches of incisive

supply the periodontium of mandibular anterior teeth including the gingiva. has anastomosis with alveolar branches of incisive artery

Lingual branch

supplies apex of tongue

Mylohyoid branch

supplies mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric (floor of mouth)

Pterygoid area of maxillary artery

each of branches travel with branch of mandibular nerve of same name

Branches of pterygoid area

1. masseteric 2. deep temporal 3. pterygoid 4. buccal

Masseteric branch

pass through mandibular notch to supply masseter muscle

Deep temporal branch

supply the anterior and posterior portions of the temporalis muscle

Pterygoid branch of pterygoid area

supply the lateral and medial pterygoid muscle

Buccal branch

supply the buccinator muscle and soft tissues of cheek

Pterygopalatine Region of Maxillary artery

supplies the maxilla, maxillary teeth, nasal cavity and palate

Branches of Pterygopalatine region

1. posterior superior alveolar 2. infraorbital 3. grater palatine 4. lesser palatine 5. sphenopalatine

Posterior superior alveolar

descends over the maxillary tuberosity, runs through the posterior superior alveolar foramen. supplies maxillary molars. has anastomosis with anterior superior alveolar

Infraorbital

passes thru infraorbital canal and crosses floor of orbit. runs through pterygopalatine fossa

Branches of Infraorbital

1. palpebral 2. labial 3. external 4. middle superior alveolar 5. anterior superior alveolar

Palpebral branch

supplies the lower eyelids and lacrimal sac

Labial branch

supplies the cheeks and upper lip

External nasal branch

supplies sides of nose

Middle superior alveolar

given off in the infraorbital canal, supplies premolars

Anterior superior alveolar

supplies maxillary anterior teeth. Dental branches supplies pulp of max ant teeth. Alveolar brances supply periodontium of max ant teeth

Greater palatine

exits through greater palatine foramen. supplies palatine glands and hard palate

Lesser palatine branch

runs through lesser palatine foramen. supplies soft palate and paltine tonsils

Sphenopalatine branch

supplies the nasal cavity. runs through pterygopalatine fossa

Branches of sphenopalatine

1. posterior lateral nasal branch 2. septal branch 3. nasopalatine branch

Posterior lateral nasal branch

supplies lateral nasal walls and sinuses

Septal branch

supplies the nasal septum

Nasopalatine branch

accompanies the nasopalatine nerve through the incisive foramen on the maxilla

Pterygoid plexus of veins

small anastomoses vessels located around the pterygoid muscles surrounding maxillary artery. protects the maxillary artery from being compressed during mastication

Circle of Willes

ring shaped anastomoses interconnecting the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries. chance of serious interruption of circulation are reduced. strokes occur here. located in anterior portion of head, near soft spot

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