the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all along phenomenon.)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
f, research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
false consensus effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior naturally without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
the false perception of a relationship between two events when none exists.
form of scientific investigation in which one variable is tested to determine its effect on another
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
A variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables, factor in an experiment that researchers manipulate so that they can determine its effect
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
the most frequent value of a random variable
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtaining by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
A value found by ordering a group of data from least to greatest and choosing the middle value of the group.
a measure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low
the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group, the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization