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Senator Gerald Nye

-senator from North Dakota
-held hearings (Nye Committee) about how the US got involved in WWI
-Led investigation from 1934-37 that found bankers and munitions makers made scandalous profits during WWI
-founded the Nye Committee

America First Society

-supported isolationism during WWII
-established by Gerald Nye
-one of the largest anti war groups
-shut down after the Pearl Harbor attack

Benito Mussolini

-Fascist dictator of Italy
-He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia
joined Germany in the Axis pact
-allied Italy with Germany in World War II
-overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy

Beer Hall Putsch

-In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich
-It was a total failure
-Hitler received a brief prison sentence
-wrote Mien Kampf while in prison

Mien Kampf

-(My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler
-combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology of Nazism
-Written while he was in prison for his role in the Beer hall Putsch

Hitler's Propaganda

-maximize emotional fervor
-use emotionally enthralling and attractive slogans
-speeches should focus on how they are presented, not what they say

Joseph Goebbles

-Minister of Propaganda
-He lied in everything and admires himself for it
-glorified Hitler
-one of the closest to Hitler

Winston Churchill

-British Prime Minister during WWII
-predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West
-great leader

Kristallnacht

-Night of Broken Glass
-Nov 9 1938
-night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews
-destroyed many jewish properties

Nuremberg Law

-Placed severe restrictions of Jews
-established a real legal basis in Germany against Jews
-prohibited from marrying non-Jews attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books
-took away their citizenship

Douglas MacArthur

-American general
-commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II
-removed from command during Korean War by Truman

Bataan Death March

-April 1942 in the Philippines
-American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors
-many of the prisoners died en route

Joseph Stalin

-Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party
-created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
-launched a highly centralized command economy
-transformed Soviet Union into a industrial power

Stalingrad

-City in Russia
-site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943
-The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union
-claimed the most lives than any other conflict during the war

Pearl Harbor

-December 7, 1941
-Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
-They were well prepared for the attack, but US did not expect it at all
-US officially entered WWII after this

Operation Overlord

-the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe
-at Normandy on June 6, 1944
-also known as D-Day
-led by Eisenhower

Nuts!

-said by General McAuliffe
-morale booster to the troops
-reply to the Nazis request to surrender

Battle of the Bulge

-World War II battle in December 1944
-between Germany and Allied troops
-last German offensive in the West
-Germans suffered heavy losses

Hiroshima

-City in Japan
-the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945
-The bombing hastened the end of World War II

Iron Curtain Speech

-March 1946
-Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri
-said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent
-talks about dangers of communism engulfing Europe

Greece and Turkey

-Two countries that were saved from communist takeover through U.S. intervention
-US provided economic assistance to them
-part of the Truman Doctrine

George Kennan

-American diplomat and ambassador
-best known as "the father of containment"
-key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.

Containment Policy

-Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII
-said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism)
-Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989

The Marshall Plan

-After WWII, this document was created
-said that the US would provide food and economic assistance to any European country that needed helpto recover from WWII
-Truman offered it to the Soviet Union but Stalin didn't accept it
-It greatly improved many western European countries

Vyacheslav Molotov

-a Soviet politician and diplomat
-leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin
-Created Molotov Plan (aid to Eastern European countries)

Berlin Airlift

-Airports had been cut in half
-Runways were too short for American planes
-Able to bring in enough supplies
-Very successful
-Stalin finally opened up the Autobahn

Executive Or. 9835

-introduced by Truman
-established the first general loyalty program in the United States
-designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government
-hoped to quiet right-wing critics who accused Democrats of being soft on communism

Martin Dyes Jr.

-Texas politician and part of the House of Representatives
-head of the HUAC
-investigated communism in government

Alger Hiss

-Well known in Democratic circles
-Thought to be a spy
-Convicted for perjury
-made people fear communism was spreading

HUAC

-a congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII
-created by McCarthy
-part of the Red Scare

McCarthyism

-The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy
-led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s
-through his leadership in the House Committee on Un-American Activities

Brinkmanship

-the willingness to go to the brink of war to force an opponent to back down
-during the Cold War
-term used by John Foster Dulles
-wanted to force Soviets to back down

John Foster Dulles

-Eisenhower's Sec. of State
-harsh anti-Communist
-called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)
-wanted to provide aid to American allies
-introduced brinkmanship

Mohammed Mosadegh

-Prime Minister of Iran
-His administration introduced a wide range of social and political reforms
-nationalization of the Iranian oil industry
-removed from power in a coup
-organised and carried out by the United States CIA

Covert Operations

-Eisenhower used covert operations with the CIA
-operatives were assigned to spread propaganda
-Eisenhower began to favor using the cia instead of the military because covert operations didn't attract as much attention
-removed Iranian Prime Minister from power

Bay of Pigs

-Invasion of Cuba
-Humiliating defeat for US
-Embarrassing for JFK and US in general
-Unsuccessful attempt to overthrow Castro
-JFK came out on national TV and took blame for entire event
 Went up in polls afterwards

Domino Theory

-the idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control
-great fear as it was possible this could happen
-theory of Eisenhower

Cuban Missile Crisis

-Most dangerous of all of the Cold War
-Closest to WWIII than any other event
-Soviets tried to establish a nuclear missile base in Cuba
-Could wipe out cities in a matter of seconds

Robert Kennedy

-brother of JFK
-He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals
-He was ultimately assassinated in 1968
-left Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans

Dien Bien Phu

-City in north Vietnam
-Major battle in 1954
-French march right into the valley
-Only one way in/out
-Vietnamese men take high ground and bombard the French

Ngo Dinh Diem

-Appointed him as the new president of South Vietnam
-He was a Roman Catholic in a Buddhist country
-poor leadership and very corrupt

LBJ's Vietnam Policy (1965-1968)

-wants to increase American involvement in Vietnam
-doesn't want to do it without Congressional authority
-navy apparently attacked in Tonkin
-LBJ goes to congress to ask for broad executive powers to wage war

Nikita Khrushchev

-Stalin's successor in Russia
-wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S.
-created the Cuban Missile Crisis

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

-Gave complete power for war to the President (LBJ)
-No oversight
-Could do whatever he wanted with Vietnam
-can take all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack

Tet Offensive

-Tet was the Vietnamese New Year
-Total military intelligence failure
-Attacked every major city
-Were in civilian clothes
-American people begin to turn against the war

Robert McNamara

-US Secretary of Defense
-Recommended an immediate attack on Cuba
-Wanted to eliminate Cuba completely
-Better to be safe than sorry

Walter Cronkite

-The most trusted man in America
-He was a news anchor
-Supported the war until Tet Offensive
-Peace talks begin after this

Jim Crow Laws

-The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern states
-aimed to limit rights of blacks
-included Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

W.E.B. Dubois

-He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately
-helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights
-He also helped found the NAACP
-first black man to receive a Ph.D from Harvard

Desegregation of College Law Schools

...

Sweat v Painter

-a black man applied to UTEXAS law school
-his application was immediately rejected because only whites were accepted
-created a separate law school that was supposed to be equal but really wasn't

Brown V. Topeka Board of Education

-the Supreme Court reversed the 1896 "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision that established the "separate but equal" doctrine
-The "Brown" decision found segregation in schools inherently unequal and in violation of the Constitution
-led to a long and difficult effort to integrate the nation's public schools

NAACP

-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
-founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination
-to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans
-got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
-consisted of men/women and blacks/whites

Montgomery Bus Boycott

-happened after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus
-Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses
-After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal
-bus company was losing money

Rosa Parks

-United States civil rights leader
-refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery
-triggered the national civil rights movement
-led to a boycott

Congress of racial equality

-made up of mainly WWII Veterans
-civil rights organization
-famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity
-leading to the passing of civil rights legislation
-founded by James Farmer

SCLC

-Southern Christian Leadership Conference
-churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement
-led by MLK Jr.
-was a success

SNCC

-(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)
-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination
-they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
-started in colleges

Ella Baker

-leader of the SCLC
-urged student leaders who had encouraged sit-ins to create their own organization
-more of a behind the scenes civil rights and human activist

James Farmer

-WWII Veteran
-Created CORE
-Created Freedom Rides to desegregate inter-state transportation

Jackie Robinson

-first African American player in the major league of baseball
-His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans
-had to keep calm because there was lots of hatred on the field

Martin Luther King Jr.

-Lead the boycott
-Arrested and sent to jail
-Helped desegregate the bus system
-Inspired the civil rights movement
-Created the SCLC

Freedom Rides

-rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
-wanted to desegregate bus stations
-led to violence and caused Kennedy administration to become more involved

Freedom Summer

-A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi
-up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters
-met with resistance by KKK and other groups

Role of JFK

...

Birmingham

-Alabama city against equal rights
-peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police
-Where MLK organized non-violent protests
-very segregated city

Selma

-a town in central Alabama on the Alabama river
-known for the 1965 Voting Rights Movement and its marches to Montgomery
-led by MLK
-police attacked them

Sit-ins

-protests by black college students
-took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served
-in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South
-Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.

Schwerner, Goodman, Chaney

-civil rights activists
-murdered by KKK
-got national attention because 2 were white

Stokely Carmichael

-a black civil rights activist in the 1960's
-Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
-He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude
-urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power

Civil Rights Act 1964/65

-made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal
-gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights
-included desegregation of schools and public places
-gave federal protection to black voters which allowed many more to vote and participate in the government

Betty Friedan

-wrote "The Feminine Mystique"
-an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men
-inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement
-president of NOW

NOW

-National Organization of Women
-1966
-Betty Friedan first president
-wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination

Equal Pay Act

-required in all federal postions, women had to be paid equally
-only applied to federal government
-helped women attain equality

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